FreeBSD 7.0 manual page repository

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builtin, !, %, ., :, @, {, }, alias, alloc, bg, bind, bindkey, break,

 

NAME

      builtin, !, %, ., :, @, {, }, alias, alloc, bg, bind, bindkey, break,
      breaksw, builtins, case, cd, chdir, command, complete, continue, default,
      dirs, do, done, echo, echotc, elif, else, end, endif, endsw, esac, eval,
      exec, exit, export, false, fc, fg, filetest, fi, for, foreach, getopts,
      glob, goto, hash, hashstat, history, hup, if, jobid, jobs, kill, limit,
      local, log, login, logout, ls-F, nice, nohup, notify, onintr, popd,
      printenv, pushd, pwd, read, readonly, rehash, repeat, return, sched, set,
      setenv, settc, setty, setvar, shift, source, stop, suspend, switch,
      telltc, test, then, time, times, trap, true, type, ulimit, umask,
      unalias, uncomplete, unhash, unlimit, unset, unsetenv, until, wait,
      where, which, while - shell built-in commands
 

SYNOPSIS

      See the built-in command description in the appropriate shell manual
      page.
 

DESCRIPTION

      Shell builtin commands are commands that can be executed within the run‐
      ning shell’s process.  Note that, in the case of csh(1) builtin commands,
      the command is executed in a subshell if it occurs as any component of a
      pipeline except the last.
 
      If a command specified to the shell contains a slash ‘/’, the shell will
      not execute a builtin command, even if the last component of the speci‐
      fied command matches the name of a builtin command.  Thus, while specify‐
      ing “echo” causes a builtin command to be executed under shells that sup‐
      port the echo builtin command, specifying “/bin/echo” or “./echo” does
      not.
 
      While some builtin commands may exist in more than one shell, their oper‐
      ation may be different under each shell which supports them.  Below is a
      table which lists shell builtin commands, the standard shells that sup‐
      port them and whether they exist as standalone utilities.
 
      Only builtin commands for the csh(1) and sh(1) shells are listed here.
      Consult a shell’s manual page for details on the operation its builtin
      commands.  Beware that the sh(1) manual page, at least, calls some of
      these commands “built-in commands” and some of them “reserved words”.
      Users of other shells may need to consult an info(1) page or other
      sources of documentation.
 
      Commands marked “No**” under External do exist externally, but are imple‐
      mented as scripts using a builtin command of the same name.
 
            Command       External    csh(1)    sh(1)
            !             No          No        Yes
            %             No          Yes       No
            .             No          No        Yes
            :             No          Yes       Yes
            @             No          Yes       Yes
            {             No          No        Yes
            }             No          No        Yes
            alias         No**        Yes       Yes
            alloc         No          Yes       No
            bg            No**        Yes       Yes
            bind          No          No        Yes
            bindkey       No          Yes       No
            break         No          Yes       Yes
            breaksw       No          Yes       No
            builtin       No          No        Yes
            builtins      No          Yes       No
            case          No          Yes       Yes
            cd            No**        Yes       Yes
            chdir         No          Yes       Yes
            command       No**        No        Yes
            complete      No          Yes       No
            continue      No          Yes       Yes
            default       No          Yes       No
            dirs          No          Yes       No
            do            No          No        Yes
            done          No          No        Yes
            echo          Yes         Yes       Yes
            echotc        No          Yes       No
            elif          No          No        Yes
            else          No          Yes       Yes
            end           No          Yes       No
            endif         No          Yes       No
            endsw         No          Yes       No
            esac          No          No        Yes
            eval          No          Yes       Yes
            exec          No          Yes       Yes
            exit          No          Yes       Yes
            export        No          No        Yes
            false         Yes         No        Yes
            fc            No**        No        Yes
            fg            No**        Yes       Yes
            filetest      No          Yes       No
            fi            No          No        Yes
            for           No          No        Yes
            foreach       No          Yes       No
            getopts       No**        No        Yes
            glob          No          Yes       No
            goto          No          Yes       No
            hash          No          No        Yes
            hashstat      No          Yes       No
            history       No          Yes       No
            hup           No          Yes       No
            if            No          Yes       Yes
            jobid         No          No        Yes
            jobs          No**        Yes       Yes
            kill          Yes         Yes       No
            limit         No          Yes       No
            local         No          No        Yes
            log           No          Yes       No
            login         Yes         Yes       No
            logout        No          Yes       No
            ls-F          No          Yes       No
            nice          Yes         Yes       No
            nohup         Yes         Yes       No
            notify        No          Yes       No
            onintr        No          Yes       No
            popd          No          Yes       No
            printenv      Yes         Yes       No
            pushd         No          Yes       No
            pwd           Yes         No        Yes
            read          No**        No        Yes
            readonly      No          No        Yes
            rehash        No          Yes       No
            repeat        No          Yes       No
            return        No          No        Yes
            sched         No          Yes       No
            set           No          Yes       Yes
            setenv        No          Yes       No
            settc         No          Yes       No
            setty         No          Yes       No
            setvar        No          No        Yes
            shift         No          Yes       Yes
            source        No          Yes       No
            stop          No          Yes       No
            suspend       No          Yes       No
            switch        No          Yes       No
            telltc        No          Yes       No
            test          Yes         No        Yes
            then          No          No        Yes
            time          Yes         Yes       No
            times         No          No        Yes
            trap          No          No        Yes
            true          Yes         No        Yes
            type          No          No        Yes
            ulimit        No          No        Yes
            umask         No**        Yes       Yes
            unalias       No**        Yes       Yes
            uncomplete    No          Yes       No
            unhash        No          Yes       No
            unlimit       No          Yes       No
            unset         No          Yes       Yes
            unsetenv      No          Yes       No
            until         No          No        Yes
            wait          No**        Yes       Yes
            where         No          Yes       No
            which         Yes         Yes       No
            while         No          Yes       Yes
      csh(1), echo(1), false(1), info(1), kill(1), login(1), nice(1), nohup(1),
      printenv(1), pwd(1), sh(1), test(1), time(1), true(1), which(1)
 

HISTORY

      The builtin manual page first appeared in FreeBSD 3.4.
 

AUTHORS

      This manual page was written by Sheldon Hearn 〈sheldonh@FreeBSD.org〉.
 

Sections

Based on BSD UNIX
FreeBSD is an advanced operating system for x86 compatible (including Pentium and Athlon), amd64 compatible (including Opteron, Athlon64, and EM64T), UltraSPARC, IA-64, PC-98 and ARM architectures. It is derived from BSD, the version of UNIX developed at the University of California, Berkeley. It is developed and maintained by a large team of individuals. Additional platforms are in various stages of development.