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ex, vi, view - text editors

 

NAME

        ex, vi, view - text editors
 

SYNOPSIS

        ex [-eFGRrSsv] [-c cmd] [-t tag] [-w size] [file ...]
        vi [-eFGlRrSv] [-c cmd] [-t tag] [-w size] [file ...]
        view [-eFGRrSv] [-c cmd] [-t tag] [-w size] [file ...]
 

LICENSE

        The  vi  program  is  freely redistributable.  You are welcome to copy,
        modify and share it with others under  the  conditions  listed  in  the
        LICENSE  file.   If any company (not individual!) finds vi sufficiently
        useful that you would have purchased it, or if any  company  wishes  to
        redistribute it, contributions to the authors would be appreciated.
 

DESCRIPTION

        Vi  is  a screen oriented text editor.  Ex is a line-oriented text edi‐
        tor.  Ex and vi are different interfaces to the same program, and it is
        possible  to switch back and forth during an edit session.  View is the
        equivalent of using the -R (read-only) option of vi.
 
        This manual page is the one provided with the nex/nvi versions  of  the
        ex/vi  text  editors.   Nex/nvi  are intended as bug-for-bug compatible
        replacements for the original  Fourth  Berkeley  Software  Distribution
        (4BSD)  ex  and vi programs.  For the rest of this manual page, nex/nvi
        is used only when it’s necessary to distinguish it  from  the  historic
        implementations of ex/vi.
 
        This  manual  page  is  intended for users already familiar with ex/vi.
        Anyone else should almost certainly read a good tutorial on the  editor
        before  this  manual page.  If you’re in an unfamiliar environment, and
        you absolutely have to get work  done  immediately,  read  the  section
        after  the options description, entitled ‘‘Fast Startup’’.  It’s proba‐
        bly enough to get you going.
 
        The following options are available:
 
        -c     Execute cmd immediately after starting the edit  session.   Par‐
               ticularly  useful  for  initial positioning in the file, however
               cmd is not limited to positioning commands.  This is  the  POSIX
               1003.2 interface for the historic ‘‘+cmd’’ syntax.  Nex/nvi sup‐
               ports both the old and new syntax.
 
        -e     Start editing in ex mode, as if the command name were ex.
 
        -F     Don’t copy the entire file when first starting  to  edit.   (The
               default is to make a copy in case someone else modifies the file
               during your edit session.)
 
        -l     Start editing with the lisp and showmatch options set.
 
        -G     Start editing in gtags mode, as if the gtagsmode option was set.
 
        -R     Start  editing  in  read-only  mode,  as if the command name was
               view, or the readonly option was set.
 
        -r     Recover the specified files, or, if no files are specified, list
               the  files  that could be recovered.  If no recoverable files by
               the specified name exist, the file is edited as if the -r option
               had not been specified.
 
        -S     Run  with  the secure edit option set, disallowing all access to
               external programs.
 
        -s     Enter batch mode; applicable only to ex  edit  sessions.   Batch
               mode  is  useful  when running ex scripts.  Prompts, informative
               messages and other user oriented message are turned off, and  no
               startup  files  or  environment variables are read.  This is the
               POSIX 1003.2 interface for the historic ‘‘-’’ argument.  Nex/nvi
               supports both the old and new syntax.
 
        -t     Start editing at the specified tag.  (See ctags(1)).
 
        -w     Set the initial window size to the specified number of lines.
 
        -v     Start editing in vi mode, as if the command name was vi or view.
 
        Command input for ex/vi is read from the standard  input.   In  the  vi
        interface,  it is an error if standard input is not a terminal.  In the
        ex interface, if standard input is not a terminal, ex  will  read  com‐
        mands  from  it  regardless,  however, the session will be a batch mode
        session, exactly as if the -s option had been specified.
 
        Ex/vi exits 0 on success, and greater than 0 if an error occurs.
        This section will tell you the minimum amount that you need to do  sim‐
        ple  editing  tasks  using  vi.  If you’ve never used any screen editor
        before, you’re likely to have problems even with this simple  introduc‐
        tion.   In  that case you should find someone that already knows vi and
        have them walk you through this section.
 
        Vi is a screen editor.  This means that it takes up almost  the  entire
        screen, displaying part of the file on each screen line, except for the
        last line of the screen.  The last line of the screen is used  for  you
        to give commands to vi, and for vi to give information to you.
 
        The other fact that you need to understand is that vi is a modeful edi‐
        tor, i.e. you are either entering text or you are  executing  commands,
        and  you have to be in the right mode to do one or the other.  You will
        be in command mode when you first start editing a file.  There are com‐
        mands  that  switch  you  into  input mode.  There is only one key that
        takes you out of input mode, and that is the <escape> key.  (Key  names
        are  written  using  less-than  and  greater-than signs, e.g.  <escape>
        means the ‘‘escape’’ key, usually labeled ‘‘esc’’  on  your  terminal’s
        keyboard.)   If  you’re  ever confused as to which mode you’re in, keep
        entering the <escape> key until vi beeps at you.  (Generally,  vi  will
        beep  at  you  if you try and do something that’s not allowed.  It will
        also display error messages.)
 
        To start editing a file, enter  the  command  ‘‘vi  file_name<carriage-
        return>’’.   The  command you should enter as soon as you start editing
        is ‘‘:set verbose showmode<carriage-return>’’.  This will make the edi‐
        tor give you verbose error messages and display the current mode at the
        bottom of the screen.
 
        The commands to move around the file are:
 
        h      Move the cursor left one character.
 
        j      Move the cursor down one line.
 
        k      Move the cursor up one line.
 
        l      Move the cursor right one character.
 
        <cursor-arrows>
               The cursor arrow keys should work, too.
 
        /text<carriage-return>
               Search for the string ‘‘text’’ in the file, and move the  cursor
               to its first character.
 
        The commands to enter new text are:
 
        a      Append new text, after the cursor.
 
        i      Insert new text, before the cursor.
 
        o      Open  a  new  line  below  the  line the cursor is on, and start
               entering text.
 
        O      Open a new line above the line  the  cursor  is  on,  and  start
               entering text.
 
        <escape>
               Once you’ve entered input mode using the one of the a, i, O or o
               commands, use <escape> to quit entering text and return to  com‐
               mand mode.
 
        The commands to copy text are:
 
        yy     Copy the line the cursor is on.
 
        p      Append the copied line after the line the cursor is on.
 
        The commands to delete text are:
 
        dd     Delete the line the cursor is on.
 
        x      Delete the character the cursor is on.
 
        The commands to write the file are:
 
        :w<carriage-return>
               Write  the  file  back to the file with the name that you origi‐
               nally used as an argument on the vi command line.
 
        :w file_name<carriage-return>
               Write the file back to the file with the name ‘‘file_name’’.
 
        The commands to quit editing and exit the editor are:
 
        :q<carriage-return>
               Quit editing and leave vi (if you’ve modified the file, but  not
               saved your changes, vi will refuse to quit).
 
        :q!<carriage-return>
               Quit, discarding any modifications that you may have made.
 
        One final caution.  Unusual characters can take up more than one column
        on the screen, and long lines can take up more  than  a  single  screen
        line.   The  above  commands work on ‘‘physical’’ characters and lines,
        i.e. they affect the entire line no matter how  many  screen  lines  it
        takes  up and the entire character no matter how many screen columns it
        takes up.
        The following section describes the commands available in  the  command
        mode  of  the  vi editor.  In each entry below, the tag line is a usage
        synopsis for the command character.
 
        [count] <control-A>
               Search forward count times for the current word.
 
        [count] <control-B>
               Page backwards count screens.
 
        [count] <control-D>
               Scroll forward count lines.
 
        [count] <control-E>
               Scroll forward count lines, leaving the current line and  column
               as is, if possible.
 
        [count] <control-F>
               Page forward count screens.
 
        <control-G>
               Display the file information.
 
        <control-H>
 
        [count] h
               Move the cursor back count characters in the current line.
 
        [count] <control-J>
 
        [count] <control-N>
 
        [count] j
               Move  the  cursor  down count lines without changing the current
               column.
 
        <control-L>
 
        <control-R>
               Repaint the screen.
 
        [count] <control-M>
 
        [count] +
               Move the cursor down count lines to the first nonblank character
               of that line.
 
        [count] <control-P>
 
        [count] k
               Move  the  cursor  up  count lines, without changing the current
               column.
 
        <control-T>
               Return to the most recent tag context.
 
        <control-U>
               Scroll backwards count lines.
 
        <control-W>
               Switch to the next lower screen in the window, or, to the  first
               screen if there are no lower screens in the window.
 
        <control-Y>
               Scroll  backwards count lines, leaving the current line and col‐
               umn as is, if possible.
 
        <control-Z>
               Suspend the current editor session.
 
        <escape>
               Execute ex commands or cancel partial commands.
 
        <control-]>
               Push a tag reference onto the tag stack.  In  gtagsmode,  if  at
               the  first  column of line, locate function references otherwise
               function definitions.
 
        <control-^>
               Switch to the most recently edited file.
 
        [count] <space>
 
        [count] l
               Move the cursor forward count characters  without  changing  the
               current line.
 
        [count] ! motion shell-argument(s)
               Replace text with results from a shell command.
 
        [count] # #|+|-
               Increment or decrement the cursor number.
 
        [count] $
               Move the cursor to the end of a line.
 
        %      Move to the matching character.
 
        &      Repeat the previous substitution command on the current line.
 
             <character>
 
             <character>
               Return to a context marked by the character <character>.
 
        [count] (
               Back up count sentences.
 
        [count] )
               Move forward count sentences.
 
        [count] ,
               Reverse find character count times.
 
        [count] -
               Move to first nonblank of the previous line, count times.
 
        [count] .
               Repeat the last vi command that modified text.
 
        /RE<carriage-return>
 
        /RE/ [offset]<carriage-return>
 
        ?RE<carriage-return>
 
        ?RE? [offset]<carriage-return>
 
        N
 
        n      Search forward or backward for a regular expression.
 
        0      Move to the first character in the current line.
 
        :      Execute an ex command.
 
        [count] ;
               Repeat the last character find count times.
 
        [count] < motion
 
        [count] > motion
               Shift lines left or right.
 
        @ buffer
               Execute a named buffer.
 
        [count] A
               Enter  input mode, appending the text after the end of the line.
 
        [count] B
               Move backwards count bigwords.
 
        [buffer] [count] C
               Change text from the current position to the end-of-line.
 
        [buffer] D
               Delete text from the current position to the end-of-line.
 
        [count] E
               Move forward count end-of-bigwords.
 
        [count] F <character>
               Search count times backward through the current line for  <char‐
               acter>.
 
        [count] G
               Move  to  line  count, or the last line of the file if count not
               specified.
 
        [count] H
               Move to the screen line count - 1 lines below  the  top  of  the
               screen.
 
        [count] I
               Enter  input  mode,  inserting  the text at the beginning of the
               line.
 
        [count] J
               Join lines.
 
        [count] L
               Move to the screen line count - 1 lines above the bottom of  the
               screen.
 
         M     Move to the screen line in the middle of the screen.
 
        [count] O
               Enter input mode, appending text in a new line above the current
               line.
 
        [buffer] P
               Insert text from a buffer.
 
        Q      Exit vi (or visual) mode and switch to ex mode.
 
        [count] R
               Enter input mode, replacing the characters in the current  line.
 
        [buffer] [count] S
               Substitute count lines.
 
        [count] T <character>
               Search  backwards, count times, through the current line for the
               character after the specified <character>.
 
        U      Restore the current line to its state  before  the  cursor  last
               moved to it.
 
        [count] W
               Move forward count bigwords.
 
        [buffer] [count] X
               Delete count characters before the cursor.
 
        [buffer] [count] Y
               Copy (or ‘‘yank’’) count lines into the specified buffer.
 
        ZZ     Write the file and exit vi.
 
        [count] [[
               Back up count section boundaries.
 
        [count] ]]
               Move forward count section boundaries.
 
        ^      Move to first nonblank character on the current line.
 
        [count] _
               Move down count - 1 lines, to the first nonblank character.
 
        [count] a
               Enter input mode, appending the text after the cursor.
 
        [count] b
               Move backwards count words.
 
        [buffer] [count] c motion
               Change a region of text.
 
        [buffer] [count] d motion
               Delete a region of text.
 
        [count] e
               Move forward count end-of-words.
 
        [count] f<character>
               Search  forward,  count  times,  through the rest of the current
               line for <character>.
 
        [count] i
               Enter input mode, inserting the text before the cursor.
 
        m <character>
               Save the current context (line and column) as <character>.
 
        [count] o
               Enter input mode, appending text in a new line under the current
               line.
 
        [buffer] p
               Append text from a buffer.
 
        [count] r <character>
               Replace count characters.
 
        [buffer] [count] s
               Substitute  count  characters  in the current line starting with
               the current character.
 
        [count] t <character>
               Search forward, count times, through the current  line  for  the
               character immediately before <character>.
 
        u      Undo the last change made to the file.
 
        [count] w
               Move forward count words.
 
        [buffer] [count] x
               Delete count characters.
 
        [buffer] [count] y motion
               Copy  (or  ‘‘yank’’)  a  text  region specified by the count and
               motion into a buffer.
 
        [count1] z [count2] -|.|+|^|<carriage-return>
               Redraw, optionally repositioning and resizing the screen.
 
        [count] {
               Move backward count paragraphs.
 
        [count] |
               Move to a specific column position on the current line.
 
        [count] }
               Move forward count paragraphs.
 
        [count] ~
               Reverse the case of the next count character(s).
 
        [count] ~ motion
               Reverse the case of the characters in a text region specified by
               the count and motion.
 
        <interrupt>
               Interrupt the current operation.
        The  following  section  describes  the  commands available in the text
        input mode of the vi editor.
 
        <nul>  Replay the previous input.
 
        <control-D>
               Erase to the previous shiftwidth column boundary.
 
        ^<control-D>
               Erase all of the autoindent characters, and reset the autoindent
               level.
 
        0<control-D>
               Erase all of the autoindent characters.
 
        <control-T>
               Insert  sufficient  <tab> and <space> characters to move forward
               to the next shiftwidth column boundary.
 
        <erase>
 
        <control-H>
               Erase the last character.
 
        <literal next>
               Quote the next character.
 
        <escape>
               Resolve all text input into the  file,  and  return  to  command
               mode.
 
        <line erase>
               Erase the current line.
 
        <control-W>
 
        <word erase>
               Erase the last word.  The definition of word is dependent on the
               altwerase and ttywerase options.
 
        <control-X>[0-9A-Fa-f]+
               Insert a character with the specified hexadecimal value into the
               text.
 
        <interrupt>
               Interrupt text input mode, returning to command mode.
        The  following  section describes the commands available in the ex edi‐
        tor.  In each entry below, the tag line is a  usage  synopsis  for  the
        command.
 
        <end-of-file>
               Scroll the screen.
 
        ! argument(s)
 
        [range]! argument(s)
               Execute  a  shell  command, or filter lines through a shell com‐
               mand.
 
        "      A comment.
 
        [range] nu[mber] [count] [flags]
 
        [range] # [count] [flags]
               Display the selected lines, each preceded with its line  number.
 
        @ buffer
 
        * buffer
               Execute a buffer.
 
        [line] a[ppend][!]
               The input text is appended after the specified line.
 
        [range] c[hange][!] [count]
               The input text replaces the specified range.
 
        cs[cope] add | find | help | kill | reset
               Execute a Cscope command.
 
        [range] d[elete] [buffer] [count] [flags]
               Delete the lines from the file.
 
        di[splay] b[uffers] | c[onnections] | s[creens] | t[ags]
               Display buffers, Cscope connections, screens or tags.
 
        [Ee][dit][!] [+cmd] [file]
 
        [Ee]x[!] [+cmd] [file]
               Edit a different file.
 
        exu[sage] [command]
               Display usage for an ex command.
 
        f[ile] [file]
               Display and optionally change the file name.
 
        [Ff]g [name]
               Vi mode only.  Foreground the specified screen.
 
        [range] g[lobal] /pattern/ [commands]
 
        [range] v /pattern/ [commands]
               Apply commands to lines matching (or not matching) a pattern.
 
        he[lp] Display a help message.
 
        [line] i[nsert][!]
               The input text is inserted before the specified line.
 
        [range] j[oin][!] [count] [flags]
               Join lines of text together.
 
        [range] l[ist] [count] [flags]
               Display the lines unambiguously.
 
        map[!] [lhs rhs]
               Define or display maps (for vi only).
 
        [line] ma[rk] <character>
 
        [line] k <character>
               Mark the line with the mark <character>.
 
        [range] m[ove] line
               Move the specified lines after the target line.
 
        mk[exrc][!] file
               Write  the  abbreviations, editor options and maps to the speci‐
               fied file.
 
        [Nn][ext][!] [file ...]
               Edit the next file from the argument list.
 
        [line] o[pen] /pattern/ [flags]
               Enter open mode.
 
        pre[serve]
               Save the file in a form that can later be recovered using the ex
               -r option.
 
        [Pp]rev[ious][!]
               Edit the previous file from the argument list.
 
        [range] p[rint] [count] [flags]
               Display the specified lines.
 
        [line] pu[t] [buffer]
               Append buffer contents to the current line.
 
        q[uit][!]
               End the editing session.
 
        [line] r[ead][!] [file]
               Read a file.
 
        rec[over] file
               Recover file if it was previously saved.
 
        res[ize] [+|-]size
               Vi mode only.  Grow or shrink the current screen.
 
        rew[ind][!]
               Rewind the argument list.
 
        rta[g][!] tagstring
               Edit the file referring the specified tag. (Only in gtagsmode)
 
        se[t] [option[=[value]] ...] [nooption ...] [option? ...] [all]
               Display or set editor options.
 
        sh[ell]
               Run a shell program.
 
        so[urce] file
               Read and execute ex commands from a file.
 
        [range] s[ubstitute] [/pattern/replace/] [options] [count] [flags]
 
        [range] & [options] [count] [flags]
 
        [range] ~ [options] [count] [flags]
               Make substitutions.
 
        su[spend][!]
 
        st[op][!]
 
        <suspend>
               Suspend the edit session.
 
        [Tt]a[g][!] tagstring
               Edit the file containing the specified tag.
 
        tagn[ext][!]
               Edit the file containing the next context for the current tag.
 
        tagp[op][!] [file | number]
               Pop to the specified tag in the tags stack.
 
        tagp[rev][!]
               Edit  the  file  containing the previous context for the current
               tag.
 
        unm[ap][!] lhs
               Unmap a mapped string.
 
        ve[rsion]
               Display the version of the ex/vi editor.
 
        [line] vi[sual] [type] [count] [flags]
               Ex mode only.  Enter vi.
 
        [Vi]i[sual][!] [+cmd] [file]
               Vi mode only.  Edit a new file.
 
        viu[sage] [command]
               Display usage for a vi command.
 
        [range] w[rite][!] [>>] [file]
 
        [range] w[rite] [!] [file]
 
        [range] wn[!] [>>] [file]
 
        [range] wq[!] [>>] [file]
               Write the file.
 
        [range] x[it][!] [file]
               Write the file if it has been modified.
 
        [range] ya[nk] [buffer] [count]
               Copy the specified lines to a buffer.
 
        [line] z [type] [count] [flags]
               Adjust the window.
        There are a large number of options that  may  be  set  (or  unset)  to
        change  the  editor’s  behavior.   This  section describes the options,
        their abbreviations and their default values.
 
        In each entry below, the first part of the tag line is the full name of
        the  option,  followed  by  any  equivalent abbreviations.  The part in
        square brackets is the default  value  of  the  option.   Most  of  the
        options are boolean, i.e. they are either on or off, and do not have an
        associated value.
 
        Options apply to both ex and vi modes, unless otherwise specified.
 
        altwerase [off]
               Vi only.  Select an alternate word erase algorithm.
 
        autoindent, ai [off]
               Automatically indent new lines.
 
        autoprint, ap [off]
               Ex only.  Display the current line automatically.
 
        autowrite, aw [off]
               Write modified files automatically when changing files.
 
        backup [""]
               Backup files before they are overwritten.
 
        beautify, bf [off]
               Discard control characters.
 
        cdpath [environment variable CDPATH, or current directory]
               The directory paths used as path prefixes for the cd command.
 
        cedit [no default]
               Set the character to edit the colon command-line history.
 
        columns, co [80]
               Set the number of columns in the screen.
 
        comment [off]
               Vi only.  Skip leading comments in shell,  C  and  C++  language
               files.
 
        directory, dir [environment variable TMPDIR, or /tmp]
               The directory where temporary files are created.
 
        edcompatible, ed [off]
               Remember  the values of the ‘‘c’’ and ‘‘g’’ suffices to the sub     
               stitute commands, instead of initializing them as unset for each
               new command.
 
        errorbells, eb [off]
               Ex only.  Announce error messages with a bell.
 
        exrc, ex [off]
               Read the startup files in the local directory.
 
        extended [off]
               Regular  expressions are extended (i.e.  egrep(1)-style) expres‐
               sions.
 
        filec [no default]
               Set the character to perform file path completion on  the  colon
               command line.
 
        flash [on]
               Flash the screen instead of beeping the keyboard on error.
 
        gtagsmode, gt [off]
               Use GTAGS and GRTAGS instead of tags.
 
        hardtabs, ht [8]
               Set the spacing between hardware tab settings.
 
        iclower [off]
               Makes  all  Regular  Expressions case-insensitive, as long as an
               upper-case letter does not appear in the search string.
 
        ignorecase, ic [off]
               Ignore case differences in regular expressions.
 
        keytime [6]
               The 10th’s of a second ex/vi waits for a subsequent key to  com‐
               plete a key mapping.
 
        leftright [off]
               Vi only.  Do left-right scrolling.
 
        lines, li [24]
               Vi only.  Set the number of lines in the screen.
 
        lisp [off]
               Vi  only.   Modify  various  search commands and options to work
               with Lisp.  This option is not yet implemented.
 
        list [off]
               Display lines in an unambiguous fashion.
 
        lock [on]
               Attempt to get an exclusive lock on any file being edited,  read
               or written.
 
        magic [on]
               Treat certain characters specially in regular expressions.
 
        matchtime [7]
               Vi  only.   The  10th’s of a second ex/vi pauses on the matching
               character when the showmatch option is set.
 
        mesg [on]
               Permit messages from other users.
 
        modelines, modeline [off]
               Read the first and last few lines of each file for ex  commands.
               This option will never be implemented.
 
        noprint [""]
               Characters that are never handled as printable characters.
 
        number, nu [off]
               Precede each line displayed with its current line number.
 
        octal [off]
               Display  unknown  characters  as  octal  numbers, instead of the
               default hexadecimal.
 
        open [on]
               Ex only.  If this option is not set, the open  and  visual  com‐
               mands are disallowed.
 
        optimize, opt [on]
               Vi  only.   Optimize  text  throughput  to dumb terminals.  This
               option is not yet implemented.
 
        paragraphs, para [IPLPPPQPP LIpplpipbp]
               Vi only.  Define additional paragraph boundaries for the { and }
               commands.
 
        path []
               Define  additional directories to search for files being edited.
 
        print [""]
               Characters that are always handled as printable characters.
 
        prompt [on]
               Ex only.  Display a command prompt.
 
        readonly, ro [off]
               Mark the file and session as read-only.
 
        recdir [/var/tmp/vi.recover]
               The directory where recovery files are stored.
 
        redraw, re [off]
               Vi only.  Simulate an intelligent terminal on a dumb one.   This
               option is not yet implemented.
 
        remap [on]
               Remap keys until resolved.
 
        report [5]
               Set  the  number of lines about which the editor reports changes
               or yanks.
 
        ruler [off]
               Vi only.  Display a row/column ruler on the colon command  line.
 
        scroll, scr [window / 2]
               Set the number of lines scrolled.
 
        searchincr [off]
               Makes the / and ?  commands incremental.
 
        sections, sect [NHSHH HUnhsh]
               Vi only.  Define additional section boundaries for the [[ and ]]
               commands.
 
        secure [off]
               Turns off all access to external programs.
 
        shell, sh [environment variable SHELL, or /bin/sh]
               Select the shell used by the editor.
 
        shellmeta [~{[*?$          "\]
               Set the meta characters checked to determine if file name expan‐
               sion is necessary.
 
        shiftwidth, sw [8]
               Set the autoindent and shift command indentation width.
 
        showmatch, sm [off]
               Vi  only.   Note  matching  ‘‘{’’  and ‘‘(’’ for ‘‘}’’ and ‘‘)’’
               characters.
 
        showmode, smd [off]
               Vi only.  Display the current editor  mode  and  a  ‘‘modified’’
               flag.
 
        sidescroll [16]
               Vi only.  Set the amount a left-right scroll will shift.
 
        slowopen, slow [off]
               Delay  display  updating  during text input.  This option is not
               yet implemented.
 
        sourceany [off]
               Read startup files not owned by the current user.   This  option
               will never be implemented.
 
        tabstop, ts [8]
               This option sets tab widths for the editor display.
 
        taglength, tl [0]
               Set the number of significant characters in tag names.
 
        tags, tag [tags /var/db/libc.tags /sys/kern/tags]
               Set the list of tags files.
 
        term, ttytype, tty [environment variable TERM]
               Set the terminal type.
 
        terse [off]
               This  option has historically made editor messages less verbose.
               It has no effect in this implementation.
 
        tildeop [off]
               Modify the ~ command to take an associated motion.
 
        timeout, to [on]
               Time out on keys which may be mapped.
 
        ttywerase [off]
               Vi only.  Select an alternate erase algorithm.
 
        verbose [off]
               Vi only.  Display an error message for every error.
 
        w300 [no default]
               Vi only.  Set the window size if the baud rate is less than 1200
               baud.
 
        w1200 [no default]
               Vi  only.  Set the window size if the baud rate is equal to 1200
               baud.
 
        w9600 [no default]
               Vi only.  Set the window size if the baud rate is  greater  than
               1200 baud.
 
        warn [on]
               Ex  only.   This option causes a warning message to the terminal
               if the file has been modified, since it was last written, before
               a !  command.
 
        window, w, wi [environment variable LINES]
               Set the window size for the screen.
 
        windowname [off]
               Change  the icon/window name to the current file name even if it
               can’t be restored on editor exit.
 
        wraplen, wl [0]
               Vi only.  Break lines automatically,  the  specified  number  of
               columns  from  the  left-hand  margin.   If both the wraplen and
               wrapmargin edit options are set, the wrapmargin value is used.
 
        wrapmargin, wm [0]
               Vi only.  Break lines automatically,  the  specified  number  of
               columns  from  the  right-hand  margin.  If both the wraplen and
               wrapmargin edit options are set, the wrapmargin value is used.
 
        wrapscan, ws [on]
               Set searches to wrap around the end or beginning of the file.
 
        writeany, wa [off]
               Turn off file-overwriting checks.
        COLUMNS
               The number of columns on the screen.  This value  overrides  any
               system  or terminal specific values.  If the COLUMNS environment
               variable is not set when ex/vi runs, or the  columns  option  is
               explicitly  reset  by  the user, ex/vi enters the value into the
               environment.
 
        EXINIT A list of ex startup commands, read if the variable  NEXINIT  is
               not set.
 
        HOME   The  user’s  home  directory, used as the initial directory path
               for the  startup  ‘‘$HOME/.nexrc’’  and  ‘‘$HOME/.exrc’’  files.
               This  value  is also used as the default directory for the vi cd
               command.
 
        LINES  The number of rows on the screen.  This value overrides any sys‐
               tem or terminal specific values.  If the LINES environment vari‐
               able is not set when ex/vi runs, or the lines option is  explic‐
               itly reset by the user, ex/vi enters the value into the environ‐
               ment.
 
        NEXINIT
               A list of ex startup commands.
 
        SHELL  The user’s shell of choice (see also the shell option).
 
        TERM   The user’s terminal type.  The default is the type  ‘‘unknown’’.
               If  the TERM environment variable is not set when ex/vi runs, or
               the term option is explicitly reset by the  user,  ex/vi  enters
               the value into the environment.
 
        TMPDIR The location used to stored temporary files (see also the direc     
               tory edit option).
        SIGALRM
               Vi/ex uses this signal for periodic backups  of  file  modifica‐
               tions  and  to  display  ‘‘busy’’  messages  when operations are
               likely to take a long time.
 
        SIGHUP
 
        SIGTERM
               If the current buffer has changed since it was last  written  in
               its  entirety,  the editor attempts to save the modified file so
               it can be later recovered.  See the vi/ex Reference manual  sec‐
               tion entitled ‘‘Recovery’’ for more information.
 
        SIGINT When  an  interrupt occurs, the current operation is halted, and
               the editor returns to the command level.  If interrupted  during
               text  input, the text already input is resolved into the file as
               if the text input had been normally terminated.
 
        SIGWINCH
               The screen is resized.  See the vi/ex Reference  manual  section
               entitled ‘‘Sizing the Screen’’ for more information.
 
        SIGCONT
 
        SIGQUIT
 
        SIGTSTP
               Vi/ex ignores these signals.
 

FILES

        /bin/sh
               The default user shell.
 
        /etc/vi.exrc
               System-wide vi startup file.
 
        /tmp   Temporary file directory.
 
        /var/tmp/vi.recover
               The default recovery file directory.
 
        $HOME/.nexrc
               1st choice for user’s home directory startup file.
 
        $HOME/.exrc
               2nd choice for user’s home directory startup file.
 
        .nexrc 1st choice for local directory startup file.
 
        .exrc  2nd choice for local directory startup file.
        ctags(1), more(1), curses(3), dbopen(3)
 
        The ‘‘Vi Quick Reference’’ card.
 
        ‘‘An  Introduction  to  Display  Editing with Vi’’, found in the ‘‘UNIX
        User’s Manual Supplementary Documents’’ section of both the 4.3BSD  and
        4.4BSD manual sets.  This document is the closest thing available to an
        introduction to the vi screen editor.
 
        ‘‘Ex Reference Manual (Version 3.7)’’, found in the ‘‘UNIX User’s  Man‐
        ual  Supplementary  Documents’’  section  of both the 4.3BSD and 4.4BSD
        manual sets.  This document is the final reference for the  ex  editor,
        as distributed in most historic 4BSD and System V systems.
 
        ‘‘Edit:  A  tutorial’’, found in the ‘‘UNIX User’s Manual Supplementary
        Documents’’ section of the 4.3BSD manual  set.   This  document  is  an
        introduction to a simple version of the ex screen editor.
 
        ‘‘Ex/Vi  Reference  Manual’’, found in the ‘‘UNIX User’s Manual Supple‐
        mentary Documents’’ section of the 4.4BSD manual set.  This document is
        the  final  reference  for  the nex/nvi text editors, as distributed in
        4.4BSD and 4.4BSD-Lite.
 
        Roff source for all of these documents is distributed with  nex/nvi  in
        the nvi/USD.doc directory of the nex/nvi source code.
 
        The  files  ‘‘autowrite’’,  ‘‘input’’,  ‘‘quoting’’  and ‘‘structures’’
        found in the nvi/docs/internals directory of the nex/nvi source code.
 

HISTORY

        The nex/nvi replacements for the ex/vi editor first appeared in 4.4BSD.
 

STANDARDS

        Nex/nvi  is close to IEEE Std1003.2 (‘‘POSIX’’).  That document differs
        from historical ex/vi practice in several places; there are changes  to
        be made on both sides.
 

Sections

Based on BSD UNIX
FreeBSD is an advanced operating system for x86 compatible (including Pentium and Athlon), amd64 compatible (including Opteron, Athlon64, and EM64T), UltraSPARC, IA-64, PC-98 and ARM architectures. It is derived from BSD, the version of UNIX developed at the University of California, Berkeley. It is developed and maintained by a large team of individuals. Additional platforms are in various stages of development.