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ftp - Internet file transfer program



      ftp - Internet file transfer program


      ftp [-46AadefginpRtvV] [-N netrc] [-o output] [-P port] [-q quittime]
          [-r retry] [-T dir,max[,inc]] [[user@]host [port]]
          [[user@]host:[path][/]] [file:///path]
          [http://[user[:password]@]host[:port]/path] [...]
      ftp -u URL file [...]


      ftp is the user interface to the Internet standard File Transfer Proto‐
      col.  The program allows a user to transfer files to and from a remote
      network site.
      The last five arguments will fetch a file using the FTP or HTTP proto‐
      cols, or by direct copying, into the current directory.  This is ideal
      for scripts.  Refer to AUTO-FETCHING FILES below for more information.
      Options may be specified at the command line, or to the command inter‐
      -4       Forces ftp to only use IPv4 addresses.
      -6       Forces ftp to only use IPv6 addresses.
      -A       Force active mode ftp.  By default, ftp will try to use passive
               mode ftp and fall back to active mode if passive is not sup‐
               ported by the server.  This option causes ftp to always use an
               active connection.  It is only useful for connecting to very old
               servers that do not implement passive mode properly.
      -a       Causes ftp to bypass normal login procedure, and use an anony‐
               mous login instead.
      -d       Enables debugging.
      -e       Disables command line editing.  This is useful for Emacs ange-
               ftp mode.
      -f       Forces a cache reload for transfers that go through the FTP or
               HTTP proxies.
      -g       Disables file name globbing.
      -i       Turns off interactive prompting during multiple file transfers.
      -n       Restrains ftp from attempting “auto-login” upon initial connec‐
               tion for non auto-fetch transfers.  If auto-login is enabled,
               ftp will check the .netrc (see below) file in the user’s home
               directory for an entry describing an account on the remote
               machine.  If no entry exists, ftp will prompt for the remote
               machine login name (default is the user identity on the local
               machine), and, if necessary, prompt for a password and an
               account with which to login.  To override the auto-login for
               auto-fetch transfers, specify the username (and optionally,
               password) as appropriate.
      -N netrc
               Use netrc instead of ~/.netrc.  Refer to THE .netrc FILE for
               more information.
      -o output
               When auto-fetching files, save the contents in output.  output
               is parsed according to the FILE NAMING CONVENTIONS below.  If
               output is not ‘-’ or doesn’t start with ‘|’, then only the first
               file specified will be retrieved into output; all other files
               will be retrieved into the basename of their remote name.
      -p       Enable passive mode operation for use behind connection filter‐
               ing firewalls.  This option has been deprecated as ftp now tries
               to use passive mode by default, falling back to active mode if
               the server does not support passive connections.
      -P port  Sets the port number to port.
      -r wait  Retry the connection attempt if it failed, pausing for wait sec‐
      -q quittime
               Quit if the connection has stalled for quittime seconds.
      -R       Restart all non-proxied auto-fetches.
      -t       Enables packet tracing.
      -T direction,maximum[,increment]
               Set the maximum transfer rate for direction to maximum
               bytes/second, and if specified, the increment to increment
               bytes/second.  Refer to rate for more information.
      -u URL file [...]
               Upload files on the command line to URL where URL is one of the
               ftp URL types as supported by auto-fetch (with an optional tar‐
               get filename for single file uploads), and file is one or more
               local files to be uploaded.
      -v       Enable verbose and progress.  This is the default if output is
               to a terminal (and in the case of progress, ftp is the fore‐
               ground process).  Forces ftp to show all responses from the
               remote server, as well as report on data transfer statistics.
      -V       Disable verbose and progress, overriding the default of enabled
               when output is to a terminal.
      The client host with which ftp is to communicate may be specified on the
      command line.  If this is done, ftp will immediately attempt to establish
      a connection to an FTP server on that host; otherwise, ftp will enter its
      command interpreter and await instructions from the user.  When ftp is
      awaiting commands from the user the prompt ‘ftp>’ is provided to the
      user.  The following commands are recognized by ftp:
      ! [command [args]]
                  Invoke an interactive shell on the local machine.  If there
                  are arguments, the first is taken to be a command to execute
                  directly, with the rest of the arguments as its arguments.
      $ macro-name [args]
                  Execute the macro macro-name that was defined with the macdef
                  command.  Arguments are passed to the macro unglobbed.
      account [passwd]
                  Supply a supplemental password required by a remote system
                  for access to resources once a login has been successfully
                  completed.  If no argument is included, the user will be
                  prompted for an account password in a non-echoing input mode.
      append local-file [remote-file]
                  Append a local file to a file on the remote machine.  If
                  remote-file is left unspecified, the local file name is used
                  in naming the remote file after being altered by any ntrans
                  or nmap setting.  File transfer uses the current settings for
                  type, format, mode, and structure.
      ascii       Set the file transfer type to network ASCII.  This is the
                  default type.
      bell        Arrange that a bell be sounded after each file transfer com‐
                  mand is completed.
      binary      Set the file transfer type to support binary image transfer.
      bye         Terminate the FTP session with the remote server and exit
                  ftp.  An end of file will also terminate the session and
      case        Toggle remote computer file name case mapping during get,
                  mget and mput commands.  When case is on (default is off),
                  remote computer file names with all letters in upper case are
                  written in the local directory with the letters mapped to
                  lower case.
      cd remote-directory
                  Change the working directory on the remote machine to
      cdup        Change the remote machine working directory to the parent of
                  the current remote machine working directory.
      chmod mode remote-file
                  Change the permission modes of the file remote-file on the
                  remote system to mode.
      close       Terminate the FTP session with the remote server, and return
                  to the command interpreter.  Any defined macros are erased.
      cr          Toggle carriage return stripping during ascii type file
                  retrieval.  Records are denoted by a carriage return/linefeed
                  sequence during ascii type file transfer.  When cr is on (the
                  default), carriage returns are stripped from this sequence to
                  conform with the UNIX single linefeed record delimiter.
                  Records on non-UNIX remote systems may contain single line‐
                  feeds; when an ascii type transfer is made, these linefeeds
                  may be distinguished from a record delimiter only when cr is
      debug [debug-value]
                  Toggle debugging mode.  If an optional debug-value is speci‐
                  fied it is used to set the debugging level.  When debugging
                  is on, ftp prints each command sent to the remote machine,
                  preceded by the string ‘-->’
      delete remote-file
                  Delete the file remote-file on the remote machine.
      dir [remote-path [local-file]]
                  Print a listing of the contents of a directory on the remote
                  machine.  The listing includes any system-dependent informa‐
                  tion that the server chooses to include; for example, most
                  UNIX systems will produce output from the command ‘ls -l’.
                  If remote-path is left unspecified, the current working
                  directory is used.  If interactive prompting is on, ftp will
                  prompt the user to verify that the last argument is indeed
                  the target local file for receiving dir output.  If no local
                  file is specified, or if local-file is ‘-’, the output is
                  sent to the terminal.
      disconnect  A synonym for close.
      edit        Toggle command line editing, and context sensitive command
                  and file completion.  This is automatically enabled if input
                  is from a terminal, and disabled otherwise.
      epsv4       Toggle the use of the extended EPSV and EPRT commands on IPv4
                  connections; first try EPSV / EPRT, and then PASV / PORT.
                  This is enabled by default.  If an extended command fails
                  then this option will be temporarily disabled for the dura‐
                  tion of the current connection, or until epsv4 is executed
      exit        A synonym for bye.
      features    Display what features the remote server supports (using the
                  FEAT command).
      fget localfile
                  Retrieve the files listed in localfile, which has one line
                  per filename.
      form format
                  Set the file transfer form to format.  The default (and only
                  supported) format is “non-print”.
      ftp host [port]
                  A synonym for open.
      gate [host [port]]
                  Toggle gate-ftp mode, which used to connect through the TIS
                  FWTK and Gauntlet ftp proxies.  This will not be permitted if
                  the gate-ftp server hasn’t been set (either explicitly by the
                  user, or from the FTPSERVER environment variable).  If host
                  is given, then gate-ftp mode will be enabled, and the gate-
                  ftp server will be set to host.  If port is also given, that
                  will be used as the port to connect to on the gate-ftp
      get remote-file [local-file]
                  Retrieve the remote-file and store it on the local machine.
                  If the local file name is not specified, it is given the same
                  name it has on the remote machine, subject to alteration by
                  the current case, ntrans, and nmap settings.  The current
                  settings for type, form, mode, and structure are used while
                  transferring the file.
      glob        Toggle filename expansion for mdelete, mget, mput, and
                  mreget.  If globbing is turned off with glob, the file name
                  arguments are taken literally and not expanded.  Globbing for
                  mput is done as in csh(1).  For mdelete, mget, and mreget,
                  each remote file name is expanded separately on the remote
                  machine and the lists are not merged.  Expansion of a direc‐
                  tory name is likely to be different from expansion of the
                  name of an ordinary file: the exact result depends on the
                  foreign operating system and ftp server, and can be previewed
                  by doing ‘mls remote-files -’ Note: mget, mput and mreget are
                  not meant to transfer entire directory subtrees of files.
                  That can be done by transferring a tar(1) archive of the sub‐
                  tree (in binary mode).
      hash [size]
                  Toggle hash-sign (‘‘#’’) printing for each data block trans‐
                  ferred.  The size of a data block defaults to 1024 bytes.
                  This can be changed by specifying size in bytes.  Enabling
                  hash disables progress.
      help [command]
                  Print an informative message about the meaning of command.
                  If no argument is given, ftp prints a list of the known com‐
      idle [seconds]
                  Set the inactivity timer on the remote server to seconds sec‐
                  onds.  If seconds is omitted, the current inactivity timer is
      image       A synonym for binary.
      lcd [directory]
                  Change the working directory on the local machine.  If no
                  directory is specified, the user’s home directory is used.
      less file   A synonym for page.
      lpage local-file
                  Display local-file with the program specified by the set
                  pager option.
      lpwd        Print the working directory on the local machine.
      ls [remote-path [local-file]]
                  A synonym for dir.
      macdef macro-name
                  Define a macro.  Subsequent lines are stored as the macro
                  macro-name; a null line (consecutive newline characters in a
                  file or carriage returns from the terminal) terminates macro
                  input mode.  There is a limit of 16 macros and 4096 total
                  characters in all defined macros.  Macros remain defined
                  until a close command is executed.  The macro processor
                  interprets ‘$’ and ‘\’ as special characters.  A ‘$’ followed
                  by a number (or numbers) is replaced by the corresponding
                  argument on the macro invocation command line.  A ‘$’ fol‐
                  lowed by an ‘i’ signals that macro processor that the execut‐
                  ing macro is to be looped.  On the first pass ‘$i’ is
                  replaced by the first argument on the macro invocation com‐
                  mand line, on the second pass it is replaced by the second
                  argument, and so on.  A ‘\’ followed by any character is
                  replaced by that character.  Use the ‘\’ to prevent special
                  treatment of the ‘$’.
      mdelete [remote-files]
                  Delete the remote-files on the remote machine.
      mdir remote-files local-file
                  Like dir, except multiple remote files may be specified.  If
                  interactive prompting is on, ftp will prompt the user to ver‐
                  ify that the last argument is indeed the target local file
                  for receiving mdir output.
      mget remote-files
                  Expand the remote-files on the remote machine and do a get
                  for each file name thus produced.  See glob for details on
                  the filename expansion.  Resulting file names will then be
                  processed according to case, ntrans, and nmap settings.
                  Files are transferred into the local working directory, which
                  can be changed with ‘lcd directory’; new local directories
                  can be created with ‘! mkdir directory’.
      mkdir directory-name
                  Make a directory on the remote machine.
      mls remote-files local-file
                  Like ls, except multiple remote files may be specified, and
                  the local-file must be specified.  If interactive prompting
                  is on, ftp will prompt the user to verify that the last argu‐
                  ment is indeed the target local file for receiving mls out‐
      mlsd [remote-path]
                  Display the contents of remote-path (which should default to
                  the current directory if not given) in a machine-parsable
                  form, using MLSD.  The format of display can be changed with
                  ‘remopts mlst ...’.
      mlst [remote-path]
                  Display the details about remote-path (which should default
                  to the current directory if not given) in a machine-parsable
                  form, using MLST.  The format of display can be changed with
                  ‘remopts mlst ...’.
      mode mode-name
                  Set the file transfer mode to mode-name.  The default (and
                  only supported) mode is “stream”.
      modtime remote-file
                  Show the last modification time of the file on the remote
      more file   A synonym for page.
      mput local-files
                  Expand wild cards in the list of local files given as argu‐
                  ments and do a put for each file in the resulting list.  See
                  glob for details of filename expansion.  Resulting file names
                  will then be processed according to ntrans and nmap settings.
      mreget remote-files
                  As per mget, but performs a reget instead of get.
      msend local-files
                  A synonym for mput.
      newer remote-file [local-file]
                  Get the file only if the modification time of the remote file
                  is more recent that the file on the current system.  If the
                  file does not exist on the current system, the remote file is
                  considered newer.  Otherwise, this command is identical to
      nlist [remote-path [local-file]]
                  A synonym for ls.
      nmap [inpattern outpattern]
                  Set or unset the filename mapping mechanism.  If no arguments
                  are specified, the filename mapping mechanism is unset.  If
                  arguments are specified, remote filenames are mapped during
                  mput commands and put commands issued without a specified
                  remote target filename.  If arguments are specified, local
                  filenames are mapped during mget commands and get commands
                  issued without a specified local target filename.  This com‐
                  mand is useful when connecting to a non-UNIX remote computer
                  with different file naming conventions or practices.  The
                  mapping follows the pattern set by inpattern and outpattern.
                  [Inpattern] is a template for incoming filenames (which may
                  have already been processed according to the ntrans and case
                  settings).  Variable templating is accomplished by including
                  the sequences ‘$1’, ‘$2’, ..., ‘$9’ in inpattern.  Use ‘\’ to
                  prevent this special treatment of the ‘$’ character.  All
                  other characters are treated literally, and are used to
                  determine the nmap [inpattern] variable values.  For example,
                  given inpattern $1.$2 and the remote file name "",
                  $1 would have the value "mydata", and $2 would have the value
                  "data".  The outpattern determines the resulting mapped file‐
                  name.  The sequences ‘$1’, ‘$2’, ...., ‘$9’ are replaced by
                  any value resulting from the inpattern template.  The
                  sequence ‘$0’ is replace by the original filename.  Addition‐
                  ally, the sequence ‘[seq1, seq2]’ is replaced by [seq1] if
                  seq1 is not a null string; otherwise it is replaced by seq2.
                  For example, the command
                        nmap $1.$2.$3 [$1,$2].[$2,file]
                  would yield the output filename "" for input file‐
                  names "" and "", "myfile.file" for
                  the input filename "myfile", and "myfile.myfile" for the
                  input filename ".myfile".  Spaces may be included in
                  outpattern, as in the example: ‘nmap $1 sed "s/  *$//" > $1’
                  .  Use the ‘\’ character to prevent special treatment of the
                  ‘$’,’[’,’]’, and ‘,’ characters.
      ntrans [inchars [outchars]]
                  Set or unset the filename character translation mechanism.
                  If no arguments are specified, the filename character trans‐
                  lation mechanism is unset.  If arguments are specified, char‐
                  acters in remote filenames are translated during mput com‐
                  mands and put commands issued without a specified remote tar‐
                  get filename.  If arguments are specified, characters in
                  local filenames are translated during mget commands and get
                  commands issued without a specified local target filename.
                  This command is useful when connecting to a non-UNIX remote
                  computer with different file naming conventions or practices.
                  Characters in a filename matching a character in inchars are
                  replaced with the corresponding character in outchars.  If
                  the character’s position in inchars is longer than the length
                  of outchars, the character is deleted from the file name.
      open host [port]
                  Establish a connection to the specified host FTP server.  An
                  optional port number may be supplied, in which case, ftp will
                  attempt to contact an FTP server at that port.  If the set
                  auto-login option is on (default), ftp will also attempt to
                  automatically log the user in to the FTP server (see below).
      page file   Retrieve file and display with the program specified by the
                  set pager option.
      passive [auto]
                  Toggle passive mode (if no arguments are given).  If auto is
                  given, act as if FTPMODE is set to ‘auto’.  If passive mode
                  is turned on (default), ftp will send a PASV command for all
                  data connections instead of a PORT command.  The PASV command
                  requests that the remote server open a port for the data con‐
                  nection and return the address of that port.  The remote
                  server listens on that port and the client connects to it.
                  When using the more traditional PORT command, the client lis‐
                  tens on a port and sends that address to the remote server,
                  who connects back to it.  Passive mode is useful when using
                  ftp through a gateway router or host that controls the direc‐
                  tionality of traffic.  (Note that though FTP servers are
                  required to support the PASV command by RFC 1123, some do
      pdir [remote-path]
                  Perform dir [remote-path], and display the result with the
                  program specified by the set pager option.
      pls [remote-path]
                  Perform ls [remote-path], and display the result with the
                  program specified by the set pager option.
      pmlsd [remote-path]
                  Perform mlsd [remote-path], and display the result with the
                  program specified by the set pager option.
      preserve    Toggle preservation of modification times on retrieved files.
      progress    Toggle display of transfer progress bar.  The progress bar
                  will be disabled for a transfer that has local-file as ‘-’ or
                  a command that starts with ‘|’.  Refer to FILE NAMING
                  CONVENTIONS for more information.  Enabling progress disables
      prompt      Toggle interactive prompting.  Interactive prompting occurs
                  during multiple file transfers to allow the user to selec‐
                  tively retrieve or store files.  If prompting is turned off
                  (default is on), any mget or mput will transfer all files,
                  and any mdelete will delete all files.
                  When prompting is on, the following commands are available at
                  a prompt:
                        a   Answer ‘yes’ to the current file, and automatically
                            answer ‘yes’ to any remaining files for the current
                        n   Answer ‘no’, and do not transfer the file.
                        p   Answer ‘yes’ to the current file, and turn off
                            prompt mode (as is “prompt off” had been given).
                        q   Terminate the current operation.
                        y   Answer ‘yes’, and transfer the file.
                        ?   Display a help message.
                  Any other response will answer ‘yes’ to the current file.
      proxy ftp-command
                  Execute an ftp command on a secondary control connection.
                  This command allows simultaneous connection to two remote FTP
                  servers for transferring files between the two servers.  The
                  first proxy command should be an open, to establish the sec‐
                  ondary control connection.  Enter the command "proxy ?" to
                  see other FTP commands executable on the secondary connec‐
                  tion.  The following commands behave differently when pref‐
                  aced by proxy: open will not define new macros during the
                  auto-login process, close will not erase existing macro defi‐
                  nitions, get and mget transfer files from the host on the
                  primary control connection to the host on the secondary con‐
                  trol connection, and put, mput, and append transfer files
                  from the host on the secondary control connection to the host
                  on the primary control connection.  Third party file trans‐
                  fers depend upon support of the FTP protocol PASV command by
                  the server on the secondary control connection.
      put local-file [remote-file]
                  Store a local file on the remote machine.  If remote-file is
                  left unspecified, the local file name is used after process‐
                  ing according to any ntrans or nmap settings in naming the
                  remote file.  File transfer uses the current settings for
                  type, format, mode, and structure.
      pwd         Print the name of the current working directory on the remote
      quit        A synonym for bye.
      quote arg1 arg2 ...
                  The arguments specified are sent, verbatim, to the remote FTP
      rate direction [maximum [increment]]
                  Throttle the maximum transfer rate to maximum bytes/second.
                  If maximum is 0, disable the throttle.
                  direction may be one of:
                        all  Both directions.
                        get  Incoming transfers.
                        put  Outgoing transfers.
                  maximum can be modified on the fly by increment bytes
                  (default: 1024) each time a given signal is received:
                        SIGUSR1  Increment maximum by increment bytes.
                        SIGUSR2  Decrement maximum by increment bytes.  The
                                 result must be a positive number.
                  If maximum is not supplied, the current throttle rates are
                  Note: rate is not yet implemented for ascii mode transfers.
      rcvbuf size
                  Set the size of the socket receive buffer to size.
      recv remote-file [local-file]
                  A synonym for get.
      reget remote-file [local-file]
                  reget acts like get, except that if local-file exists and is
                  smaller than remote-file, local-file is presumed to be a par‐
                  tially transferred copy of remote-file and the transfer is
                  continued from the apparent point of failure.  This command
                  is useful when transferring very large files over networks
                  that are prone to dropping connections.
      remopts command [command-options]
                  Set options on the remote FTP server for command to
                  command-options (whose absence is handled on a command-spe‐
                  cific basis).  Remote FTP commands known to support options
                  include: ‘MLST’ (used for MLSD and MLST).
      rename [from [to]]
                  Rename the file from on the remote machine, to the file to.
      reset       Clear reply queue.  This command re-synchronizes com‐
                  mand/reply sequencing with the remote FTP server.  Resynchro‐
                  nization may be necessary following a violation of the FTP
                  protocol by the remote server.
      restart marker
                  Restart the immediately following get or put at the indicated
                  marker.  On UNIX systems, marker is usually a byte offset
                  into the file.
      rhelp [command-name]
                  Request help from the remote FTP server.  If a command-name
                  is specified it is supplied to the server as well.
      rmdir directory-name
                  Delete a directory on the remote machine.
      rstatus [remote-file]
                  With no arguments, show status of remote machine.  If
                  remote-file is specified, show status of remote-file on
                  remote machine.
      runique     Toggle storing of files on the local system with unique file‐
                  names.  If a file already exists with a name equal to the
                  target local filename for a get or mget command, a ".1" is
                  appended to the name.  If the resulting name matches another
                  existing file, a ".2" is appended to the original name.  If
                  this process continues up to ".99", an error message is
                  printed, and the transfer does not take place.  The generated
                  unique filename will be reported.  Note that runique will not
                  affect local files generated from a shell command (see
                  below).  The default value is off.
      send local-file [remote-file]
                  A synonym for put.
      sendport    Toggle the use of PORT commands.  By default, ftp will
                  attempt to use a PORT command when establishing a connection
                  for each data transfer.  The use of PORT commands can prevent
                  delays when performing multiple file transfers.  If the PORT
                  command fails, ftp will use the default data port.  When the
                  use of PORT commands is disabled, no attempt will be made to
                  use PORT commands for each data transfer.  This is useful for
                  certain FTP implementations which do ignore PORT commands
                  but, incorrectly, indicate they’ve been accepted.
      set [option value]
                  Set option to value.  If option and value are not given, dis‐
                  play all of the options and their values.  The currently sup‐
                  ported options are:
                        anonpass    Defaults to $FTPANONPASS
                        ftp_proxy   Defaults to $ftp_proxy.
                        http_proxy  Defaults to $http_proxy.
                        no_proxy    Defaults to $no_proxy.
                        pager       Defaults to $PAGER.
                        prompt      Defaults to $FTPPROMPT.
                        rprompt     Defaults to $FTPRPROMPT.
      site arg1 arg2 ...
                  The arguments specified are sent, verbatim, to the remote FTP
                  server as a SITE command.
      size remote-file
                  Return size of remote-file on remote machine.
      sndbuf size
                  Set the size of the socket send buffer to size.
      status      Show the current status of ftp.
      struct struct-name
                  Set the file transfer structure to struct-name.  The default
                  (and only supported) structure is “file”.
      sunique     Toggle storing of files on remote machine under unique file
                  names.  The remote FTP server must support FTP protocol STOU
                  command for successful completion.  The remote server will
                  report unique name.  Default value is off.
      system      Show the type of operating system running on the remote
      tenex       Set the file transfer type to that needed to talk to TENEX
      throttle    A synonym for rate.
      trace       Toggle packet tracing.
      type [type-name]
                  Set the file transfer type to type-name.  If no type is spec‐
                  ified, the current type is printed.  The default type is net‐
                  work ASCII.
      umask [newmask]
                  Set the default umask on the remote server to newmask.  If
                  newmask is omitted, the current umask is printed.
      unset option
                  Unset option.  Refer to set for more information.
      usage command
                  Print the usage message for command.
      user user-name [password [account]]
                  Identify yourself to the remote FTP server.  If the password
                  is not specified and the server requires it, ftp will prompt
                  the user for it (after disabling local echo).  If an account
                  field is not specified, and the FTP server requires it, the
                  user will be prompted for it.  If an account field is speci‐
                  fied, an account command will be relayed to the remote server
                  after the login sequence is completed if the remote server
                  did not require it for logging in.  Unless ftp is invoked
                  with “auto-login” disabled, this process is done automati‐
                  cally on initial connection to the FTP server.
      verbose     Toggle verbose mode.  In verbose mode, all responses from the
                  FTP server are displayed to the user.  In addition, if ver‐
                  bose is on, when a file transfer completes, statistics
                  regarding the efficiency of the transfer are reported.  By
                  default, verbose is on.
      xferbuf size
                  Set the size of the socket send and receive buffers to size.
      ? [command]
                  A synonym for help.
      Command arguments which have embedded spaces may be quoted with quote ‘"’
      Commands which toggle settings can take an explicit on or off argument to
      force the setting appropriately.
      Commands which take a byte count as an argument (e.g., hash, rate, and
      xferbuf) support an optional suffix on the argument which changes the
      interpretation of the argument.  Supported suffixes are:
            b    Causes no modification.  (Optional)
            k    Kilo; multiply the argument by 1024
            m    Mega; multiply the argument by 1048576
            g    Giga; multiply the argument by 1073741824
      If ftp receives a SIGINFO (see the “status” argument of stty(1)) or
      SIGQUIT signal whilst a transfer is in progress, the current transfer
      rate statistics will be written to the standard error output, in the same
      format as the standard completion message.
      In addition to standard commands, this version of ftp supports an auto-
      fetch feature.  To enable auto-fetch, simply pass the list of host‐
      names/files on the command line.
      The following formats are valid syntax for an auto-fetch element:
            “Classic” FTP format.
            If path contains a glob character and globbing is enabled, (see
            glob), then the equivalent of ‘mget path’ is performed.
            If the directory component of path contains no globbing characters,
            it is stored locally with the name basename (see basename(1)) of
            path, in the current directory.  Otherwise, the full remote name is
            used as the local name, relative to the local root directory.
            An FTP URL, retrieved using the FTP protocol if set ftp_proxy isn’t
            defined.  Otherwise, transfer the URL using HTTP via the proxy
            defined in set ftp_proxy.  If set ftp_proxy isn’t defined and user
            is given, login as user.  In this case, use password if supplied,
            otherwise prompt the user for one.
            If a suffix of ‘;type=A’ or ‘;type=I’ is supplied, then the trans‐
            fer type will take place as ascii or binary (respectively).  The
            default transfer type is binary.
            In order to be compliant with RFC 1738, ftp interprets the path
            part of an “ftp://” auto-fetch URL as follows:
                  The ‘/’ immediately after the host[:port] is interpreted as a
                separator before the path, and not as part of the path itself.
                  The path is interpreted as a ‘/’-separated list of name compo‐
                nents.  For all but the last such component, ftp performs the
                equivalent of a cd command.  For the last path component, ftp
                performs the equivalent of a get command.
                  Empty name components, which result from ‘//’ within the path,
                or from an extra ‘/’ at the beginning of the path, will cause
                the equivalent of a cd command without a directory name.  This
                is unlikely to be useful.
                  Any ‘%XX’ codes (per RFC 1738) within the path components are
                decoded, with XX representing a character code in hexadecimal.
                This decoding takes place after the path has been split into
                components, but before each component is used in the equivalent
                of a cd or get command.  Some often-used codes are ‘%2F’ (which
                represents ‘/’) and ‘%7E’ (which represents ‘~’).
            The above interpretation has the following consequences:
                  The path is interpreted relative to the default login directory
                of the specified user or of the ‘anonymous’ user.  If the /
                directory is required, use a leading path of “%2F”.  If a
                user’s home directory is required (and the remote server sup‐
                ports the syntax), use a leading path of “%7Euser/”.  For exam‐
                ple, to retrieve /etc/motd from ‘localhost’ as the user
                ‘myname’ with the password ‘mypass’, use
                  The exact cd and get commands can be controlled by careful
                choice of where to use ‘/’ and where to use ‘%2F’ (or ‘%2f’).
                For example, the following URLs correspond to the equivalents
                of the indicated commands:
                ftp://host/dir1/dir2/file         “cd dir1”, “cd dir2”, “get
                ftp://host/%2Fdir1/dir2/file      “cd /dir1”, “cd dir2”, “get
                ftp://host/dir1%2Fdir2/file       “cd dir1/dir2”, “get file”.
                ftp://host/%2Fdir1%2Fdir2/file    “cd /dir1/dir2”, “get file”.
                ftp://host/dir1%2Fdir2%2Ffile     “get dir1/dir2/file”.
                ftp://host/%2Fdir1%2Fdir2%2Ffile  “get /dir1/dir2/file”.
                  You must have appropriate access permission for each of the
                intermediate directories that is used in the equivalent of a cd
            An HTTP URL, retrieved using the HTTP protocol.  If set http_proxy
            is defined, it is used as a URL to an HTTP proxy server.  If HTTP
            authorization is required to retrieve path, and ‘user’ (and option‐
            ally ‘password’) is in the URL, use them for the first attempt to
            A local URL, copied from /path on the local host.
      Unless noted otherwise above, and -o output is not given, the file is
      stored in the current directory as the basename(1) of path.  Note that if
      a HTTP redirect is received, the fetch is retried using the new target
      URL supplied by the server, with a corresponding new path.  Using an
      explicit -o output is recommended, to avoid writing to unexpected file
      If a classic format or an FTP URL format has a trailing ‘/’ or an empty
      path component, then ftp will connect to the site and cd to the directory
      given as the path, and leave the user in interactive mode ready for fur‐
      ther input.  This will not work if set ftp_proxy is being used.
      Direct HTTP transfers use HTTP 1.1.  Proxied FTP and HTTP transfers use
      HTTP 1.0.
      If -R is given, all auto-fetches that don’t go via the FTP or HTTP prox‐
      ies will be restarted.  For FTP, this is implemented by using reget
      instead of get.  For HTTP, this is implemented by using the ‘Range:
      bytes=’ HTTP/1.1 directive.
      If WWW or proxy WWW authentication is required, you will be prompted to
      enter a username and password to authenticate with.
      When specifying IPv6 numeric addresses in a URL, you need to surround the
      address in square brackets.  E.g.: “ftp://[::1]:21/”.  This is because
      colons are used in IPv6 numeric address as well as being the separator
      for the port number.
      To abort a file transfer, use the terminal interrupt key (usually Ctrl-
      C).  Sending transfers will be immediately halted.  Receiving transfers
      will be halted by sending an FTP protocol ABOR command to the remote
      server, and discarding any further data received.  The speed at which
      this is accomplished depends upon the remote server’s support for ABOR
      processing.  If the remote server does not support the ABOR command, the
      prompt will not appear until the remote server has completed sending the
      requested file.
      If the terminal interrupt key sequence is used whilst ftp is awaiting a
      reply from the remote server for the ABOR processing, then the connection
      will be closed.  This is different from the traditional behaviour (which
      ignores the terminal interrupt during this phase), but is considered more
      Files specified as arguments to ftp commands are processed according to
      the following rules.
      1.   If the file name ‘-’ is specified, the stdin (for reading) or stdout
           (for writing) is used.
      2.   If the first character of the file name is ‘|’, the remainder of the
           argument is interpreted as a shell command.  ftp then forks a shell,
           using popen(3) with the argument supplied, and reads (writes) from
           the stdout (stdin).  If the shell command includes spaces, the argu‐
           ment must be quoted; e.g.  “"| ls -lt"”.  A particularly useful
           example of this mechanism is: “dir "" |more”.
      3.   Failing the above checks, if ‘‘globbing’’ is enabled, local file
           names are expanded according to the rules used in the csh(1); c.f.
           the glob command.  If the ftp command expects a single local file
           (e.g.  put), only the first filename generated by the "globbing"
           operation is used.
      4.   For mget commands and get commands with unspecified local file
           names, the local filename is the remote filename, which may be
           altered by a case, ntrans, or nmap setting.  The resulting filename
           may then be altered if runique is on.
      5.   For mput commands and put commands with unspecified remote file
           names, the remote filename is the local filename, which may be
           altered by a ntrans or nmap setting.  The resulting filename may
           then be altered by the remote server if sunique is on.
      The FTP specification specifies many parameters which may affect a file
      transfer.  The type may be one of “ascii”, “image” (binary), “ebcdic”,
      and “local byte size” (for PDP-10’s and PDP-20’s mostly).  ftp supports
      the ascii and image types of file transfer, plus local byte size 8 for
      tenex mode transfers.
      ftp supports only the default values for the remaining file transfer
      parameters: mode, form, and struct.
      The .netrc file contains login and initialization information used by the
      auto-login process.  It resides in the user’s home directory, unless
      overridden with the -N netrc option, or specified in the NETRC environ‐
      ment variable.  The following tokens are recognized; they may be sepa‐
      rated by spaces, tabs, or new-lines:
      machine name
                Identify a remote machine name.  The auto-login process
                searches the .netrc file for a machine token that matches the
                remote machine specified on the ftp command line or as an open
                command argument.  Once a match is made, the subsequent .netrc
                tokens are processed, stopping when the end of file is reached
                or another machine or a default token is encountered.
      default   This is the same as machine name except that default matches
                any name.  There can be only one default token, and it must be
                after all machine tokens.  This is normally used as:
                      default login anonymous password user@site
                thereby giving the user an automatic anonymous FTP login to
                machines not specified in .netrc.  This can be overridden by
                using the -n flag to disable auto-login.
      login name
                Identify a user on the remote machine.  If this token is
                present, the auto-login process will initiate a login using the
                specified name.
      password string
                Supply a password.  If this token is present, the auto-login
                process will supply the specified string if the remote server
                requires a password as part of the login process.  Note that if
                this token is present in the .netrc file for any user other
                than anonymous, ftp will abort the auto-login process if the
                .netrc is readable by anyone besides the user.
      account string
                Supply an additional account password.  If this token is
                present, the auto-login process will supply the specified
                string if the remote server requires an additional account
                password, or the auto-login process will initiate an ACCT com‐
                mand if it does not.
      macdef name
                Define a macro.  This token functions like the ftp macdef com‐
                mand functions.  A macro is defined with the specified name;
                its contents begin with the next .netrc line and continue until
                a blank line (consecutive new-line characters) is encountered.
                If a macro named init is defined, it is automatically executed
                as the last step in the auto-login process.  For example,
                      macdef init
                      epsv4 off
                followed by a blank line.
      ftp supports interactive command line editing, via the editline(3)
      library.  It is enabled with the edit command, and is enabled by default
      if input is from a tty.  Previous lines can be recalled and edited with
      the arrow keys, and other GNU Emacs-style editing keys may be used as
      The editline(3) library is configured with a .editrc file - refer to
      editrc(5) for more information.
      An extra key binding is available to ftp to provide context sensitive
      command and filename completion (including remote file completion).  To
      use this, bind a key to the editline(3) command ftp-complete.  By
      default, this is bound to the TAB key.
      By default, ftp displays a command line prompt of “ftp> ” to the user.
      This can be changed with the set prompt command.
      A prompt can be displayed on the right side of the screen (after the com‐
      mand input) with the set rprompt command.
      The following formatting sequences are replaced by the given information:
            %/   The current remote working directory.
                 The trailing component of the current remote working direc‐
                 tory, or n trailing components if a digit n is given.  If n
                 begins with ‘0’, the number of skipped components precede the
                 trailing component(s) in the format “/<number>trailing” (for
                 ‘%c’) or “...trailing” (for ‘%.’).
            %M   The remote host name.
            %m   The remote host name, up to the first ‘.’.
            %n   The remote user name.
            %%   A single ‘%’.


      ftp uses the following environment variables.
      FTPANONPASS    Password to send in an anonymous FTP transfer.  Defaults
                     to “‘whoami‘@”.
      FTPMODE        Overrides the default operation mode.  Support values are:
                     active   active mode FTP only
                     auto     automatic determination of passive or active
                              (this is the default)
                     gate     gate-ftp mode
                     passive  passive mode FTP only
      FTPPROMPT      Command-line prompt to use.  Defaults to “ftp> ”.  Refer
                     to COMMAND LINE PROMPT for more information.
      FTPRPROMPT     Command-line right side prompt to use.  Defaults to “”.
                     Refer to COMMAND LINE PROMPT for more information.
      FTPSERVER      Host to use as gate-ftp server when gate is enabled.
      FTPSERVERPORT  Port to use when connecting to gate-ftp server when gate
                     is enabled.  Default is port returned by a getservbyname()
                     lookup of “ftpgate/tcp”.
      FTPUSERAGENT   The value to send for the HTTP User-Agent header.
      HOME           For default location of a .netrc file, if one exists.
      NETRC          An alternate location of the .netrc file.
      PAGER          Used by various commands to display files.  Defaults to
                     more(1) if empty or not set.
      SHELL          For default shell.
      ftp_proxy      URL of FTP proxy to use when making FTP URL requests (if
                     not defined, use the standard FTP protocol).
                     See http_proxy for further notes about proxy use.
      http_proxy     URL of HTTP proxy to use when making HTTP URL requests.
                     If proxy authentication is required and there is a user‐
                     name and password in this URL, they will automatically be
                     used in the first attempt to authenticate to the proxy.
                     If “unsafe” URL characters are required in the username or
                     password (for example ‘@’ or ‘/’), encode them with RFC
                     1738 ‘%XX’ encoding.
                     Note that the use of a username and password in ftp_proxy
                     and http_proxy may be incompatible with other programs
                     that use it (such as lynx(1)).
                     NOTE: this is not used for interactive sessions, only for
                     command-line fetches.
      no_proxy       A space or comma separated list of hosts (or domains) for
                     which proxying is not to be used.  Each entry may have an
                     optional trailing ":port", which restricts the matching to
                     connections to that port.
      Some firewall configurations do not allow ftp to use extended passive
      mode.  If you find that even a simple ls appears to hang after printing a
      message such as this:
            229 Entering Extended Passive Mode (|||58551|)
      then you will need to disable extended passive mode with epsv4 off.  See
      the above section The .netrc File for an example of how to make this
      getservbyname(3), editrc(5), services(5), ftpd(8)


      ftp attempts to be compliant with RFC 959, RFC 1123, RFC 1738, RFC 2068,
      RFC 2389, RFC 2428, RFC 2732, and draft-ietf-ftpext-mlst-11.


      The ftp command appeared in 4.2BSD.
      Various features such as command line editing, context sensitive command
      and file completion, dynamic progress bar, automatic fetching of files
      and URLs, modification time preservation, transfer rate throttling, con‐
      figurable command line prompt, and other enhancements over the standard
      BSD ftp were implemented in NetBSD 1.3 and later releases by Luke Mewburn
      IPv6 support was added by the WIDE/KAME project (but may not be present
      in all non-NetBSD versions of this program, depending if the operating
      system supports IPv6 in a similar manner to KAME).


      Correct execution of many commands depends upon proper behavior by the
      remote server.
      An error in the treatment of carriage returns in the 4.2BSD ascii-mode
      transfer code has been corrected.  This correction may result in incor‐
      rect transfers of binary files to and from 4.2BSD servers using the ascii
      type.  Avoid this problem by using the binary image type.
      ftp assumes that all IPv4 mapped addresses (IPv6 addresses with a form
      like ::ffff: indicate IPv4 destinations which can be handled by
      AF_INET sockets.  However, in certain IPv6 network configurations, this
      assumption is not true.  In such an environment, IPv4 mapped addresses
      must be passed to AF_INET6 sockets directly.  For example, if your site
      uses a SIIT translator for IPv6-to-IPv4 translation, ftp is unable to
      support your configuration.


Based on BSD UNIX
FreeBSD is an advanced operating system for x86 compatible (including Pentium and Athlon), amd64 compatible (including Opteron, Athlon64, and EM64T), UltraSPARC, IA-64, PC-98 and ARM architectures. It is derived from BSD, the version of UNIX developed at the University of California, Berkeley. It is developed and maintained by a large team of individuals. Additional platforms are in various stages of development.