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wait, waitpid, wait4, wait3 - wait for process termination
wait, waitpid, wait4, wait3 - wait for process termination
Standard C Library (libc, -lc)
#include <sys/types.h> #include <sys/wait.h> pid_t wait(int *status); #include <sys/time.h> #include <sys/resource.h> pid_t waitpid(pid_t wpid, int *status, int options); pid_t wait3(int *status, int options, struct rusage *rusage); pid_t wait4(pid_t wpid, int *status, int options, struct rusage *rusage);
The wait() function suspends execution of its calling process until status information is available for a terminated child process, or a sig‐ nal is received. On return from a successful wait() call, the status area contains termination information about the process that exited as defined below. The wait4() system call provides a more general interface for programs that need to wait for certain child processes, that need resource uti‐ lization statistics accumulated by child processes, or that require options. The other wait functions are implemented using wait4(). The wpid argument specifies the set of child processes for which to wait. If wpid is -1, the call waits for any child process. If wpid is 0, the call waits for any child process in the process group of the caller. If wpid is greater than zero, the call waits for the process with process id wpid. If wpid is less than -1, the call waits for any process whose pro‐ cess group id equals the absolute value of wpid. The status argument is defined below. The options argument contains the bitwise OR of any of the following options. The WCONTINUED option indi‐ cates that children of the current process that have continued from a job control stop, by receiving a SIGCONT signal, should also have their sta‐ tus reported. The WNOHANG option is used to indicate that the call should not block if there are no processes that wish to report status. If the WUNTRACED option is set, children of the current process that are stopped due to a SIGTTIN, SIGTTOU, SIGTSTP, or SIGSTOP signal also have their status reported. If rusage is non-zero, a summary of the resources used by the terminated process and all its children is returned (this information is currently not available for stopped or continued processes). When the WNOHANG option is specified and no processes wish to report sta‐ tus, wait4() returns a process id of 0. The waitpid() function is identical to wait4() with an rusage value of zero. The older wait3() call is the same as wait4() with a wpid value of -1. The following macros may be used to test the manner of exit of the pro‐ cess. One of the first three macros will evaluate to a non-zero (true) value: WIFCONTINUED(status) True if the process has not terminated, and has continued after a job control stop. This macro can be true only if the wait call specified the WCONTINUED option). WIFEXITED(status) True if the process terminated normally by a call to _exit(2) or exit(3). WIFSIGNALED(status) True if the process terminated due to receipt of a signal. WIFSTOPPED(status) True if the process has not terminated, but has stopped and can be restarted. This macro can be true only if the wait call spec‐ ified the WUNTRACED option or if the child process is being traced (see ptrace(2)). Depending on the values of those macros, the following macros produce the remaining status information about the child process: WEXITSTATUS(status) If WIFEXITED(status) is true, evaluates to the low-order 8 bits of the argument passed to _exit(2) or exit(3) by the child. WTERMSIG(status) If WIFSIGNALED(status) is true, evaluates to the number of the signal that caused the termination of the process. WCOREDUMP(status) If WIFSIGNALED(status) is true, evaluates as true if the termina‐ tion of the process was accompanied by the creation of a core file containing an image of the process when the signal was received. WSTOPSIG(status) If WIFSTOPPED(status) is true, evaluates to the number of the signal that caused the process to stop.
See sigaction(2) for a list of termination signals. A status of 0 indi‐ cates normal termination. If a parent process terminates without waiting for all of its child pro‐ cesses to terminate, the remaining child processes are assigned the par‐ ent process 1 ID (the init process ID). If a signal is caught while any of the wait() calls are pending, the call may be interrupted or restarted when the signal-catching routine returns, depending on the options in effect for the signal; see discussion of SA_RESTART in sigaction(2). The implementation queues one SIGCHLD signal for each child process whose status has changed, if wait() returns because the status of a child pro‐ cess is available, the pending SIGCHLD signal associated with the process ID of the child process will be discarded. Any other pending SIGCHLD signals remain pending. If SIGCHLD is blocked, wait() returns because the status of a child pro‐ cess is available, the pending SIGCHLD signal will be cleared unless another status of the child process is available. If wait() returns due to a stopped, continued, or terminated child pro‐ cess, the process ID of the child is returned to the calling process. Otherwise, a value of -1 is returned and errno is set to indicate the error. If wait4(), wait3(), or waitpid() returns due to a stopped, continued, or terminated child process, the process ID of the child is returned to the calling process. If there are no children not previously awaited, -1 is returned with errno set to ECHILD. Otherwise, if WNOHANG is specified and there are no stopped, continued or exited children, 0 is returned. If an error is detected or a caught signal aborts the call, a value of -1 is returned and errno is set to indicate the error.
The wait() function will fail and return immediately if: [ECHILD] The calling process has no existing unwaited-for child processes. [ECHILD] No status from the terminated child process is avail‐ able because the calling process has asked the system to discard such status by ignoring the signal SIGCHLD or setting the flag SA_NOCLDWAIT for that signal. [EFAULT] The status or rusage argument points to an illegal address. (May not be detected before exit of a child process.) [EINTR] The call was interrupted by a caught signal, or the signal did not have the SA_RESTART flag set. _exit(2), ptrace(2), sigaction(2), exit(3), siginfo(3)
The wait() and waitpid() functions are defined by POSIX; wait4() and wait3() are not specified by POSIX. The WCOREDUMP() macro and the abil‐ ity to restart a pending wait() call are extensions to the POSIX inter‐ face.
The wait() function appeared in Version 6 AT&T UNIX.