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dnssec-signzone - DNSSEC zone signing tool

 

NAME

        dnssec-signzone - DNSSEC zone signing tool
 

SYNOPSIS

        dnssec-signzone [-a] [-c class] [-d directory] [-e end-time]
                        [-f output-file] [-g] [-h] [-k key] [-l domain]
                        [-i interval] [-I input-format] [-j jitter]
                        [-N soa-serial-format] [-o origin] [-O output-format]
                        [-p] [-r randomdev] [-s start-time] [-t] [-v level]
                        [-z] {zonefile} [key...]
 

DESCRIPTION

        dnssec-signzone signs a zone. It generates NSEC and RRSIG records and
        produces a signed version of the zone. The security status of
        delegations from the signed zone (that is, whether the child zones are
        secure or not) is determined by the presence or absence of a keyset
        file for each child zone.
 

OPTIONS

        -a
            Verify all generated signatures.
 
        -c class
            Specifies the DNS class of the zone.
 
        -k key
            Treat specified key as a key signing key ignoring any key flags.
            This option may be specified multiple times.
 
        -l domain
            Generate a DLV set in addition to the key (DNSKEY) and DS sets. The
            domain is appended to the name of the records.
 
        -d directory
            Look for keyset files in directory as the directory
 
        -g
            Generate DS records for child zones from keyset files. Existing DS
            records will be removed.
 
        -s start-time
            Specify the date and time when the generated RRSIG records become
            valid. This can be either an absolute or relative time. An absolute
            start time is indicated by a number in YYYYMMDDHHMMSS notation;
            20000530144500 denotes 14:45:00 UTC on May 30th, 2000. A relative
            start time is indicated by +N, which is N seconds from the current
            time. If no start-time is specified, the current time minus 1 hour
            (to allow for clock skew) is used.
 
        -e end-time
            Specify the date and time when the generated RRSIG records expire.
            As with start-time, an absolute time is indicated in YYYYMMDDHHMMSS
            notation. A time relative to the start time is indicated with +N,
            which is N seconds from the start time. A time relative to the
            current time is indicated with now+N. If no end-time is specified,
            30 days from the start time is used as a default.
 
        -f output-file
            The name of the output file containing the signed zone. The default
            is to append .signed to the input filename.
 
        -h
            Prints a short summary of the options and arguments to
            dnssec-signzone.
 
        -i interval
            When a previously-signed zone is passed as input, records may be
            resigned. The interval option specifies the cycle interval as an
            offset from the current time (in seconds). If a RRSIG record
            expires after the cycle interval, it is retained. Otherwise, it is
            considered to be expiring soon, and it will be replaced.
 
            The default cycle interval is one quarter of the difference between
            the signature end and start times. So if neither end-time or
            start-time are specified, dnssec-signzone generates signatures that
            are valid for 30 days, with a cycle interval of 7.5 days.
            Therefore, if any existing RRSIG records are due to expire in less
            than 7.5 days, they would be replaced.
 
        -I input-format
            The format of the input zone file. Possible formats are "text"
            (default) and "raw". This option is primarily intended to be used
            for dynamic signed zones so that the dumped zone file in a non-text
            format containing updates can be signed directly. The use of this
            option does not make much sense for non-dynamic zones.
 
        -j jitter
            When signing a zone with a fixed signature lifetime, all RRSIG
            records issued at the time of signing expires simultaneously. If
            the zone is incrementally signed, i.e. a previously-signed zone is
            passed as input to the signer, all expired signatures have to be
            regenerated at about the same time. The jitter option specifies a
            jitter window that will be used to randomize the signature expire
            time, thus spreading incremental signature regeneration over time.
 
            Signature lifetime jitter also to some extent benefits validators
            and servers by spreading out cache expiration, i.e. if large
            numbers of RRSIGs don’t expire at the same time from all caches
            there will be less congestion than if all validators need to
            refetch at mostly the same time.
 
        -n ncpus
            Specifies the number of threads to use. By default, one thread is
            started for each detected CPU.
 
        -N soa-serial-format
            The SOA serial number format of the signed zone. Possible formats
            are "keep" (default), "increment" and "unixtime".
 
                "keep"
                    Do not modify the SOA serial number.
 
                "increment"
                    Increment the SOA serial number using RFC 1982 arithmetics.
 
                "unixtime"
                    Set the SOA serial number to the number of seconds since
                    epoch.
 
        -o origin
            The zone origin. If not specified, the name of the zone file is
            assumed to be the origin.
 
        -O output-format
            The format of the output file containing the signed zone. Possible
            formats are "text" (default) and "raw".
 
        -p
            Use pseudo-random data when signing the zone. This is faster, but
            less secure, than using real random data. This option may be useful
            when signing large zones or when the entropy source is limited.
 
        -r randomdev
            Specifies the source of randomness. If the operating system does
            not provide a /dev/random or equivalent device, the default source
            of randomness is keyboard input.  randomdev specifies the name of a
            character device or file containing random data to be used instead
            of the default. The special value keyboard indicates that keyboard
            input should be used.
 
        -t
            Print statistics at completion.
 
        -v level
            Sets the debugging level.
 
        -z
            Ignore KSK flag on key when determining what to sign.
 
        zonefile
            The file containing the zone to be signed.
 
        key
            Specify which keys should be used to sign the zone. If no keys are
            specified, then the zone will be examined for DNSKEY records at the
            zone apex. If these are found and there are matching private keys,
            in the current directory, then these will be used for signing.
 

EXAMPLE

        The following command signs the example.com zone with the DSA key
        generated by dnssec-keygen (Kexample.com.+003+17247). The zone’s keys
        must be in the master file (db.example.com). This invocation looks for
        keyset files, in the current directory, so that DS records can be
        generated from them (-g).
 
            % dnssec-signzone -g -o example.com db.example.com \
            Kexample.com.+003+17247
            db.example.com.signed
            %
 
        In the above example, dnssec-signzone creates the file
        db.example.com.signed. This file should be referenced in a zone
        statement in a named.conf file.
 
        This example re-signs a previously signed zone with default parameters.
        The private keys are assumed to be in the current directory.
 
            % cp db.example.com.signed db.example.com
            % dnssec-signzone -o example.com db.example.com
            db.example.com.signed
            %
        dnssec-keygen(8), BIND 9 Administrator Reference Manual, RFC 2535.
 

AUTHOR

        Internet Systems Consortium
 

COPYRIGHT

        Copyright © 2004-2007 Internet Systems Consortium, Inc. ("ISC")
        Copyright © 2000-2003 Internet Software Consortium.
 

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