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ping6 - send ICMPv6 ECHO_REQUEST packets to network hosts

 

NAME

      ping6 - send ICMPv6 ECHO_REQUEST packets to network hosts
 

SYNOPSIS

      ping6 [-dfHmnNqtvwW] [-a addrtype] [-b bufsiz] [-c count] [-g gateway]
            [-h hoplimit] [-I interface] [-i wait] [-l preload] [-P policy]
            [-p pattern] [-S sourceaddr] [-s packetsize] [hops ...] host
 

DESCRIPTION

      The ping6 utility uses the ICMPv6 protocol’s mandatory ICMP6_ECHO_REQUEST
      datagram to elicit an ICMP6_ECHO_REPLY from a host or gateway.
      ICMP6_ECHO_REQUEST datagrams (‘‘pings’’) have an IPv6 header, and ICMPv6
      header formatted as documented in RFC2463.  The options are as follows:
 
      -a addrtype
              Generate ICMPv6 Node Information Node Addresses query, rather
              than echo-request.  addrtype must be a string constructed of the
              following characters.
              a       requests unicast addresses from all of the responder’s
                      interfaces.  If the character is omitted, only those
                      addresses which belong to the interface which has the
                      responder’s address are requests.
              c       requests responder’s IPv4-compatible and IPv4-mapped
                      addresses.
              g       requests responder’s global-scope addresses.
              s       requests responder’s site-local addresses.
              l       requests responder’s link-local addresses.
              A       requests responder’s anycast addresses.  Without this
                      character, the responder will return unicast addresses
                      only.  With this character, the responder will return
                      anycast addresses only.  Note that the specification does
                      not specify how to get responder’s anycast addresses.
                      This is an experimental option.
 
      -b bufsiz
              Set socket buffer size.
 
      -c count
              Stop after sending (and receiving) count ECHO_RESPONSE packets.
 
      -d      Set the SO_DEBUG option on the socket being used.
 
      -f      Flood ping.  Outputs packets as fast as they come back or one
              hundred times per second, whichever is more.  For every
              ECHO_REQUEST sent a period “.” is printed, while for every
              ECHO_REPLY received a backspace is printed.  This provides a
              rapid display of how many packets are being dropped.  Only the
              super-user may use this option.  This can be very hard on a net‐
              work and should be used with caution.
 
      -g gateway
              Specifies to use gateway as the next hop to the destination.  The
              gateway must be a neighbor of the sending node.
 
      -H      Specifies to try reverse-lookup of IPv6 addresses.  The ping6
              utility does not try reverse-lookup unless the option is speci‐
              fied.
 
      -h hoplimit
              Set the IPv6 hoplimit.
 
      -I interface
              Source packets with the given interface address.  This flag
              applies if the ping destination is a multicast address, or link-
              local/site-local unicast address.
 
      -i wait
              Wait wait seconds between sending each packet.  The default is to
              wait for one second between each packet.  This option is incom‐
              patible with the -f option.
 
      -l preload
              If preload is specified, ping6 sends that many packets as fast as
              possible before falling into its normal mode of behavior.  Only
              the super-user may use this option.
 
      -m      By default, ping6 asks the kernel to fragment packets to fit into
              the minimum IPv6 MTU.  The -m option will suppress the behavior
              in the following two levels: when the option is specified once,
              the behavior will be disabled for unicast packets.  When the
              option is more than once, it will be disabled for both unicast
              and multicast packets.
 
      -n      Numeric output only.  No attempt will be made to lookup symbolic
              names from addresses in the reply.
 
      -N      Probe node information multicast group (ff02::2:xxxx:xxxx).  host
              must be string hostname of the target (must not be a numeric IPv6
              address).  Node information multicast group will be computed
              based on given host, and will be used as the final destination.
              Since node information multicast group is a link-local multicast
              group, outgoing interface needs to be specified by -I option.
 
      -p pattern
              You may specify up to 16 “pad” bytes to fill out the packet you
              send.  This is useful for diagnosing data-dependent problems in a
              network.  For example, “-p ff” will cause the sent packet to be
              filled with all ones.
 
      -P policy
              policy specifies IPsec policy to be used for the probe.
 
      -q      Quiet output.  Nothing is displayed except the summary lines at
              startup time and when finished.
 
      -S sourceaddr
              Specifies the source address of request packets.  The source
              address must be one of the unicast addresses of the sending node,
              and must be numeric.
 
      -s packetsize
              Specifies the number of data bytes to be sent.  The default is
              56, which translates into 64 ICMP data bytes when combined with
              the 8 bytes of ICMP header data.  You may need to specify -b as
              well to extend socket buffer size.
 
      -t      Generate ICMPv6 Node Information supported query types query,
              rather than echo-request.  -s has no effect if -t is specified.
 
      -v      Verbose output.  ICMP packets other than ECHO_RESPONSE that are
              received are listed.
 
      -w      Generate ICMPv6 Node Information DNS Name query, rather than
              echo-request.  -s has no effect if -w is specified.
 
      -W      Same as -w, but with old packet format based on 03 draft.  This
              option is present for backward compatibility.  -s has no effect
              if -w is specified.
 
      hops    IPv6 addresses for intermediate nodes, which will be put into
              type 0 routing header.
 
      host    IPv6 address of the final destination node.
 
      When using ping6 for fault isolation, it should first be run on the local
      host, to verify that the local network interface is up and running.
      Then, hosts and gateways further and further away should be “pinged”.
      Round-trip times and packet loss statistics are computed.  If duplicate
      packets are received, they are not included in the packet loss calcula‐
      tion, although the round trip time of these packets is used in calculat‐
      ing the round-trip time statistics.  When the specified number of packets
      have been sent (and received) or if the program is terminated with a
      SIGINT, a brief summary is displayed, showing the number of packets sent
      and received, and the minimum, mean, maximum, and standard deviation of
      the round-trip times.
 
      If ping6 receives a SIGINFO (see the status argument for stty(1)) signal,
      the current number of packets sent and received, and the minimum, mean,
      maximum, and standard deviation of the round-trip times will be written
      to the standard output in the same format as the standard completion mes‐
      sage.
 
      This program is intended for use in network testing, measurement and man‐
      agement.  Because of the load it can impose on the network, it is unwise
      to use ping6 during normal operations or from automated scripts.
      The ping6 utility will report duplicate and damaged packets.  Duplicate
      packets should never occur when pinging a unicast address, and seem to be
      caused by inappropriate link-level retransmissions.  Duplicates may occur
      in many situations and are rarely (if ever) a good sign, although the
      presence of low levels of duplicates may not always be cause for alarm.
      Duplicates are expected when pinging a broadcast or multicast address,
      since they are not really duplicates but replies from different hosts to
      the same request.
 
      Damaged packets are obviously serious cause for alarm and often indicate
      broken hardware somewhere in the ping6 packet’s path (in the network or
      in the hosts).
      The (inter)network layer should never treat packets differently depending
      on the data contained in the data portion.  Unfortunately, data-dependent
      problems have been known to sneak into networks and remain undetected for
      long periods of time.  In many cases the particular pattern that will
      have problems is something that does not have sufficient “transitions”,
      such as all ones or all zeros, or a pattern right at the edge, such as
      almost all zeros.  It is not necessarily enough to specify a data pattern
      of all zeros (for example) on the command line because the pattern that
      is of interest is at the data link level, and the relationship between
      what you type and what the controllers transmit can be complicated.
 
      This means that if you have a data-dependent problem you will probably
      have to do a lot of testing to find it.  If you are lucky, you may manage
      to find a file that either cannot be sent across your network or that
      takes much longer to transfer than other similar length files.  You can
      then examine this file for repeated patterns that you can test using the
      -p option of ping6.
      The ping6 utility returns 0 on success (the host is alive), and non-zero
      if the arguments are incorrect or the host is not responding.
 

EXAMPLES

      Normally, ping6 works just like ping(8) would work; the following will
      send ICMPv6 echo request to dst.foo.com.
 
            ping6 -n dst.foo.com
 
      The following will probe hostnames for all nodes on the network link
      attached to wi0 interface.  The address ff02::1 is named the link-local
      all-node multicast address, and the packet would reach every node on the
      network link.
 
            ping6 -w ff02::1%wi0
 
      The following will probe addresses assigned to the destination node,
      dst.foo.com.
 
            ping6 -a agl dst.foo.com
      netstat(1), icmp6(4), inet6(4), ip6(4), ifconfig(8), ping(8), routed(8),
      traceroute(8), traceroute6(8)
 
      A. Conta and S. Deering, Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMPv6) for
      the Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) Specification, RFC2463, December
      1998.
 
      Matt Crawford, IPv6 Node Information Queries, draft-ietf-ipngwg-icmp-
      name-lookups-09.txt, May 2002, work in progress material.
 

HISTORY

      The ping(8) utility appeared in 4.3BSD.  The ping6 utility with IPv6 sup‐
      port first appeared in the WIDE Hydrangea IPv6 protocol stack kit.
 
      IPv6 and IPsec support based on the KAME Project (http://www.kame.net/)
      stack was initially integrated into FreeBSD 4.0.
 

BUGS

      The ping6 utility is intentionally separate from ping(8).
 
      There have been many discussions on why we separate ping6 and ping(8).
      Some people argued that it would be more convenient to uniform the ping
      command for both IPv4 and IPv6.  The followings are an answer to the
      request.
 
      From a developer’s point of view: since the underling raw sockets API is
      totally different between IPv4 and IPv6, we would end up having two types
      of code base.  There would actually be less benefit to uniform the two
      commands into a single command from the developer’s standpoint.
 
      From an operator’s point of view: unlike ordinary network applications
      like remote login tools, we are usually aware of address family when
      using network management tools.  We do not just want to know the reacha‐
      bility to the host, but want to know the reachability to the host via a
      particular network protocol such as IPv6.  Thus, even if we had a unified
      ping(8) command for both IPv4 and IPv6, we would usually type a -6 or -4
      option (or something like those) to specify the particular address fam‐
      ily.  This essentially means that we have two different commands.
 

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