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zpool - configures ZFS storage pools



        zpool - configures ZFS storage pools


        zpool [-?]
        zpool create [-fn] [-R root] [-m mountpoint] pool vdev ...
        zpool destroy [-f] pool
        zpool add [-fn] pool vdev
        zpool remove pool vdev
        zpool  list [-H] [-o field[,field]*] [pool] ...
        zpool iostat [-v] [pool] ... [interval [count]]
        zpool status [-xv] [pool] ...
        zpool offline [-t] pool device ...
        zpool online pool device ...
        zpool clear pool [device] ...
        zpool attach [-f] pool device new_device
        zpool detach pool device
        zpool replace [-f] pool device [new_device]
        zpool scrub [-s] pool ...
        zpool export [-f] pool
        zpool import [-d dir] [-D]
        zpool import [-d dir] [-D] [-f] [-o opts] [-R root] pool | id
        zpool import [-d dir] [-D] [-f] [-a]
        zpool upgrade
        zpool upgrade -v
        zpool upgrade [-a | pool]
        zpool history [pool] ...


        The  zpool  command  configures  ZFS storage pools. A storage pool is a
        collection of devices that provides physical storage and data  replica‐
        tion for ZFS datasets.
        All  datasets  within  a storage pool share the same space. See zfs(1M)
        for information on managing datasets.
    Virtual Devices (vdevs)
        A "virtual device" describes a single device or a collection of devices
        organized  according  to certain performance and fault characteristics.
        The following virtual devices are supported:
        disk      A block device, typically located under "/dev/dsk".  ZFS  can
                  use  individual  slices or partitions, though the recommended
                  mode of operation is to use whole disks. A disk can be speci‐
                  fied by a full path, or it can be a shorthand name (the rela‐
                  tive portion of the path under "/dev/dsk"). A whole disk  can
                  be  specified by omitting the slice or partition designation.
                  For example, "c0t0d0" is equivalent  to  "/dev/dsk/c0t0d0s2".
                  When  given  a whole disk, ZFS automatically labels the disk,
                  if necessary.
        file      A regular file. The use  of  files  as  a  backing  store  is
                  strongly discouraged. It is designed primarily for experimen‐
                  tal purposes, as the fault tolerance of a  file  is  only  as
                  good as the file system of which it is a part. A file must be
                  specified by a full path.
        mirror    A mirror of two or more devices. Data  is  replicated  in  an
                  identical fashion across all components of a mirror. A mirror
                  with N disks of size X can hold X  bytes  and  can  withstand
                  (N-1) devices failing before data integrity is compromised.
        raidz     A  variation on RAID-5 that allows for better distribution of
        raidz1    parity and eliminates the "RAID-5 write hole" (in which  data
        raidz2    and  parity become inconsistent after a power loss). Data and
                  parity is striped across all disks within a raidz group.
                  A raidz group can have either single- or double-parity, mean‐
                  ing  that  the  raidz  group  can sustain one or two failures
                  respectively without losing any data. The  raidz1  vdev  type
                  specifies  a  single-parity  raidz  group and the raidz2 vdev
                  type specifies a double-parity raidz group.  The  raidz  vdev
                  type is an alias for raidz1.
                  A  raidz group with N disks of size X with P parity disks can
                  hold approximately (N-P)*X bytes and can withstand one device
                  failing  before  data  integrity  is compromised. The minimum
                  number of devices in a raidz group is one more than the  num‐
                  ber  of parity disks. The recommended number is between 3 and
        spare     A special pseudo-vdev which  keeps  track  of  available  hot
                  spares for a pool. For more information, see the "Hot Spares"
        Virtual devices cannot be nested, so a mirror or raidz  virtual  device
        can  only contain files or disks. Mirrors of mirrors (or other combina‐
        tions) are not allowed.
        A pool can have any number of virtual devices at the top of the config‐
        uration (known as "root vdevs"). Data is dynamically distributed across
        all top-level devices to balance data among  devices.  As  new  virtual
        devices are added, ZFS automatically places data on the newly available
        Virtual devices are specified one at a time on the command line,  sepa‐
        rated by whitespace. The keywords "mirror" and "raidz" are used to dis‐
        tinguish where a group ends and another begins. For example,  the  fol‐
        lowing creates two root vdevs, each a mirror of two disks:
          # zpool create mypool mirror c0t0d0 c0t1d0 mirror c1t0d0 c1t1d0
    Device Failure and Recovery
        ZFS  supports  a rich set of mechanisms for handling device failure and
        data corruption. All metadata and data is checksummed, and ZFS automat‐
        ically repairs bad data from a good copy when corruption is detected.
        In  order  to take advantage of these features, a pool must make use of
        some form of redundancy, using either mirrored or raidz  groups.  While
        ZFS  supports running in a non-redundant configuration, where each root
        vdev is simply a disk or file, this is strongly discouraged.  A  single
        case of bit corruption can render some or all of your data unavailable.
        A pool’s health status is described by one  of  three  states:  online,
        degraded,  or  faulted.  An  online pool has all devices operating nor‐
        mally. A degraded pool is one in which one or more devices have failed,
        but  the  data  is  still available due to a redundant configuration. A
        faulted pool has one or more failed devices, and there is  insufficient
        redundancy to replicate the missing data.
    Hot Spares
        ZFS  allows  devices to be associated with pools as "hot spares". These
        devices are not actively used in the pool, but when  an  active  device
        fails,  it  is  automatically replaced by a hot spare. To create a pool
        with hot spares, specify a "spare" vdev with any number of devices. For
          # zpool create pool mirror c0d0 c1d0 spare c2d0 c3d0
        Spares  can  be shared across multiple pools, and can be added with the
        "zpool add" command and removed with the "zpool remove" command. Once a
        spare  replacement  is  initiated, a new "spare" vdev is created within
        the configuration that will remain there until the original  device  is
        replaced.  At  this  point,  the  hot  spare becomes available again if
        another device fails.
        An in-progress spare replacement can be cancelled by detaching the  hot
        spare.  If  the original faulted device is detached, then the hot spare
        assumes its place in the configuration, and is removed from  the  spare
        list of all active pools.
    Alternate Root Pools
        The  "zpool  create  -R"  and "zpool import -R" commands allow users to
        create and import a pool with a different root path. By default,  when‐
        ever a pool is created or imported on a system, it is permanently added
        so that it is available whenever the system boots. For removable media,
        or  when  in  recovery situations, this may not always be desirable. An
        alternate root pool does not persist on the system. Instead, it  exists
        only  until  exported or the system is rebooted, at which point it will
        have to be imported again.
        In addition, all mount points in the pool are prefixed with  the  given
        root,  so  a  pool  can be constrained to a particular area of the file
        system. This is most useful when importing unknown pools from removable
        media, as the mount points of any file systems cannot be trusted.
        When  creating  an alternate root pool, the default mount point is "/",
        rather than the normal default "/pool".
        All subcommands that modify state are logged persistently to  the  pool
        in their original form.
        The  zpool  command  provides subcommands to create and destroy storage
        pools, add capacity to storage pools, and provide information about the
        storage pools. The following subcommands are supported:
        zpool -?
            Displays a help message.
        zpool create [-fn] [-R root] [-m mountpoint] pool vdev ...
            Creates a new storage pool containing the virtual devices specified
            on the command line. The pool name must begin with  a  letter,  and
            can  only  contain  alphanumeric  characters  as well as underscore
            ("_"), dash ("-"), and  period  (".").  The  pool  names  "mirror",
            "raidz",  and "spare" are reserved, as are names beginning with the
            pattern "c[0-9]". The vdev specification is described in the  "Vir‐
            tual Devices" section.
            The  command  verifies that each device specified is accessible and
            not currently in use by another subsystem.  There  are  some  uses,
            such as being currently mounted, or specified as the dedicated dump
            device, that prevents a device from ever being used by  ZFS.  Other
            uses, such as having a preexisting UFS file system, can be overrid‐
            den with the -f option.
            The command also checks that the replication strategy for the  pool
            is  consistent.  An  attempt to combine redundant and non-redundant
            storage in a single pool, or to mix disks and files, results in  an
            error  unless -f is specified. The use of differently sized devices
            within a single raidz or mirror group is also flagged as  an  error
            unless -f is specified.
            Unless  the  -R  option  is  specified,  the default mount point is
            "/pool". The mount point must not exist or must be empty,  or  else
            the root dataset cannot be mounted. This can be overridden with the
            -m option.
            -f               Forces use of vdevs, even if they appear in use or
                             specify  a  conflicting replication level. Not all
                             devices can be overridden in this manner.
            -n               Displays the  configuration  that  would  be  used
                             without  actually  creating  the  pool. The actual
                             pool creation can still fail due  to  insufficient
                             privileges or device sharing.
            -R root          Creates  the  pool with an alternate root. See the
                             "Alternate Root Pools" section. The  root  dataset
                             has  its  mount  point  set to "/" as part of this
            -m mountpoint    Sets the mount point for  the  root  dataset.  The
                             default  mount  point  is "/pool". The mount point
                             must be an absolute path, "legacy", or "none". For
                             more  information  on  dataset  mount  points, see
        zpool destroy [-f] pool
            Destroys the given pool, freeing up any devices for other use. This
            command  tries to unmount any active datasets before destroying the
            -f    Forces any active datasets contained within the  pool  to  be
        zpool add [-fn] pool vdev ...
            Adds  the  specified  virtual  devices  to the given pool. The vdev
            specification is described in the "Virtual  Devices"  section.  The
            behavior  of  the  -f  option,  and the device checks performed are
            described in the "zpool create" subcommand.
            -f    Forces use of vdevs, even if they appear in use or specify  a
                  conflicting  replication  level. Not all devices can be over‐
                  ridden in this manner.
            -n    Displays the configuration that would be used  without  actu‐
                  ally  adding  the  vdevs.  The actual pool creation can still
                  fail due to insufficient privileges or device sharing.
            Do not add a disk that is currently configured as a  quorum  device
            to  a  zpool. Once a disk is in a zpool, that disk can then be con‐
            figured as a quorum device.
        zpool remove pool vdev
            Removes the given vdev from the pool. This command  currently  only
            supports  removing  hot  spares. Devices which are part of a mirror
            can be removed using the "zpool detach"  command.  Raidz  and  top-
            level vdevs cannot be removed from a pool.
        zpool list [-H] [-o field[,field*]] [pool] ...
            Lists  the  given pools along with a health status and space usage.
            When given no arguments, all pools in the system are listed.
            -H          Scripted mode. Do not  display  headers,  and  separate
                        fields by a single tab instead of arbitrary space.
            -o field    Comma-separated  list  of fields to display. Each field
                        must be one of:
                          name            Pool name
                          size            Total size
                          used            Amount of space used
                          available       Amount of space available
                          capacity        Percentage of pool space used
                          health          Health status
                        The default is all fields.
            This command reports actual physical space available to the storage
            pool.  The physical space can be different from the total amount of
            space that any contained datasets can actually use. The  amount  of
            space  used in a raidz configuration depends on the characteristics
            of the data being written. In addition, ZFS reserves some space for
            internal  accounting  that  the zfs(1M) command takes into account,
            but the zpool command does not. For non-full pools of a  reasonable
            size,  these effects should be invisible. For small pools, or pools
            that are close to being completely full,  these  discrepancies  may
            become more noticeable.
        zpool iostat [-v] [pool] ... [interval [count]]
            Displays  I/O  statistics for the given pools. When given an inter‐
            val, the statistics are printed every interval seconds until Ctrl-C
            is pressed. If no pools are specified, statistics for every pool in
            the system is shown. If count is specified, the command exits after
            count reports are printed.
            -v    Verbose  statistics.  Reports usage statistics for individual
                  vdevs within the pool, in addition to the  pool-wide  statis‐
        zpool status [-xv] [pool] ...
            Displays the detailed health status for the given pools. If no pool
            is specified, then the status of each pool in the  system  is  dis‐
            If  a  scrub  or  resilver is in progress, this command reports the
            percentage done and the estimated time to completion. Both of these
            are  only  approximate,  because the amount of data in the pool and
            the other workloads on the system can change.
            -x    Only display status for pools that are exhibiting  errors  or
                  are otherwise unavailable.
            -v    Displays  verbose data error information, printing out a com‐
                  plete list of all data errors since the  last  complete  pool
        zpool offline [-t] pool device ...
            Takes  the  specified  physical device offline. While the device is
            offline, no attempt is made to read or write to the device.
            This command is not applicable to spares.
            -t    Temporary. Upon reboot, the specified physical device reverts
                  to its previous state.
        zpool online pool device ...
            Brings the specified physical device online.
            This command is not applicable to spares.
        zpool clear pool [device] ...
            Clears  device errors in a pool. If no arguments are specified, all
            device errors within the pool are cleared. If one or  more  devices
            is  specified,  only  those  errors  associated  with the specified
            device or devices are cleared.
        zpool attach [-f] pool device new_device
            Attaches new_device to  an  existing  zpool  device.  The  existing
            device  cannot  be  part of a raidz configuration. If device is not
            currently part of a mirrored  configuration,  device  automatically
            transforms  into  a  two-way  mirror  of  device and new_device. If
            device is part of a two-way mirror, attaching new_device creates  a
            three-way  mirror,  and so on. In either case, new_device begins to
            resilver immediately.
            -f    Forces use of new_device, even if its appears to be  in  use.
                  Not all devices can be overridden in this manner.
        zpool detach pool device
            Detaches  device  from  a mirror. The operation is refused if there
            are no other valid replicas of the data.
        zpool replace [-f] pool old_device [new_device]
            Replaces old_device with new_device. This is equivalent to  attach‐
            ing  new_device,  waiting  for  it  to resilver, and then detaching
            The size of new_device must be greater than or equal to the minimum
            size of all the devices in a mirror or raidz configuration.
            If  new_device  is  not  specified, it defaults to old_device. This
            form of replacement is useful after an existing disk has failed and
            has  been  physically replaced. In this case, the new disk may have
            the same /dev/dsk path as the old device, even though it  is  actu‐
            ally a different disk. ZFS recognizes this.
            -f    Forces  use  of new_device, even if its appears to be in use.
                  Not all devices can be overridden in this manner.
        zpool scrub [-s] pool ...
            Begins a scrub. The scrub examines all data in the specified  pools
            to  verify  that  it checksums correctly. For replicated (mirror or
            raidz) devices, ZFS automatically  repairs  any  damage  discovered
            during  the  scrub. The "zpool status" command reports the progress
            of the scrub and summarizes the results of the scrub  upon  comple‐
            Scrubbing  and resilvering are very similar operations. The differ‐
            ence is that resilvering only examines data that ZFS  knows  to  be
            out  of  date (for example, when attaching a new device to a mirror
            or replacing an existing device), whereas  scrubbing  examines  all
            data to discover silent errors due to hardware faults or disk fail‐
            Because scrubbing and resilvering are I/O-intensive operations, ZFS
            only  allows  one at a time. If a scrub is already in progress, the
            "zpool scrub" command terminates it and starts a new  scrub.  If  a
            resilver  is  in progress, ZFS does not allow a scrub to be started
            until the resilver completes.
            -s    Stop scrubbing.
        zpool export [-f] pool ...
            Exports the given pools from the system. All devices are marked  as
            exported,  but are still considered in use by other subsystems. The
            devices can be moved between systems (even those of different endi‐
            anness)  and imported as long as a sufficient number of devices are
            Before exporting  the  pool,  all  datasets  within  the  pool  are
            For  pools  to  be  portable, you must give the zpool command whole
            disks, not just slices, so  that  ZFS  can  label  the  disks  with
            portable  EFI  labels. Otherwise, disk drivers on platforms of dif‐
            ferent endianness will not recognize the disks.
            -f    Forcefully unmount all datasets, using the "unmount -f"  com‐
        zpool import [-d dir] [-D]
            Lists pools available to import. If the -d option is not specified,
            this command searches for devices in "/dev/dsk". The -d option  can
            be  specified  multiple times, and all directories are searched. If
            the device appears to be part of an  exported  pool,  this  command
            displays a summary of the pool with the name of the pool, a numeric
            identifier, as well as the vdev layout and current  health  of  the
            device  for  each  device or file. Destroyed pools, pools that were
            previously destroyed with the "-zpool  destroy"  command,  are  not
            listed unless the -D option is specified.
            The  numeric  identifier  is unique, and can be used instead of the
            pool name when multiple exported pools of the same name are  avail‐
            -d dir    Searches  for  devices or files in dir. The -d option can
                      be specified multiple times.
            -D        Lists destroyed pools only.
        zpool import [-d dir] [-D] [-f] [-o opts] [-R root] pool | id [newpool]
            Imports  a  specific  pool. A pool can be identified by its name or
            the numeric identifier.  If  newpool  is  specified,  the  pool  is
            imported using the name newpool. Otherwise, it is imported with the
            same name as its exported name.
            If a device is removed from a system without running "zpool export"
            first,  the  device  appears  as  potentially  active. It cannot be
            determined if this was a failed export, or whether  the  device  is
            really  in  use  from another host. To import a pool in this state,
            the -f option is required.
            -d dir     Searches for devices or files in dir. The -d option  can
                       be specified multiple times.
            -D         Imports  destroyed pool. The -f option is also required.
            -f         Forces import, even if the pool  appears  to  be  poten‐
                       tially active.
            -o opts    Comma-separated list of mount options to use when mount‐
                       ing datasets within the pool. See zfs(1M) for a descrip‐
                       tion of dataset properties and mount options.
            -R root    Imports  pool(s) with an alternate root. See the "Alter‐
                       nate Root Pools" section.
        zpool import [-d dir] [-D] [-f] [-a]
            Imports all pools found in the search directories. Identical to the
            previous command, except that all pools with a sufficient number of
            devices available are imported. Destroyed pools,  pools  that  were
            previously destroyed with the "-zpool destroy" command, will not be
            imported unless the -D option is specified.
            -d dir    Searches for devices or files in dir. The -d  option  can
                      be specified multiple times.
            -D        Imports  destroyed  pools  only.  The  -f  option is also
            -f        Forces import, even if the pool appears to be potentially
        zpool upgrade
            Displays all pools formatted using a different ZFS on-disk version.
            Older versions can continue to be used, but some features  may  not
            be available. These pools can be upgraded using "zpool upgrade -a".
            Pools that are formatted  with  a  more  recent  version  are  also
            displayed, although these pools will be inaccessible on the system.
        zpool upgrade -v
            Displays ZFS versions supported by the current software.  The  cur‐
            rent ZFS versions and all previous supportedversions are displayed,
            along with an explanation of the features provided with  each  ver‐
        zpool upgrade [-a | pool]
            Upgrades the given pool to the latest on-disk version. Once this is
            done, the pool will no longer  be  accessible  on  systems  running
            older versions of the software.
            -a    Upgrades all pools.
        zpool history [pool] ...
            Displays  the  command history of the specified pools (or all pools
            if no pool is specified).


        Example 1 Creating a RAID-Z Storage Pool
        The following command creates a pool with a single raidz root vdev that
        consists of six disks.
          # zpool create tank raidz c0t0d0 c0t1d0 c0t2d0 c0t3d0 c0t4d0 c0t5d0
        Example 2 Creating a Mirrored Storage Pool
        The  following command creates a pool with two mirrors, where each mir‐
        ror contains two disks.
          # zpool create tank mirror c0t0d0 c0t1d0 mirror c0t2d0 c0t3d0
        Example 3 Creating a ZFS Storage Pool by Using Slices
        The following command creates an unmirrored pool using two disk slices.
          # zpool create tank /dev/dsk/c0t0d0s1 c0t1d0s4
        Example 4 Creating a ZFS Storage Pool by Using Files
        The following command creates an unmirrored pool using files. While not
        recommended, a pool based on files can be useful for experimental  pur‐
          # zpool create tank /path/to/file/a /path/to/file/b
        Example 5 Adding a Mirror to a ZFS Storage Pool
        The  following  command  adds  two  mirrored  disks to the pool "tank",
        assuming the pool is already made up of two-way mirrors. The additional
        space is immediately available to any datasets within the pool.
          # zpool add tank mirror c1t0d0 c1t1d0
        Example 6 Listing Available ZFS Storage Pools
        The  following command lists all available pools on the system. In this
        case, the pool zion is faulted due to a missing device.
        The results from this command are similar to the following:
          # zpool list
              NAME              SIZE    USED   AVAIL    CAP  HEALTH     ALTROOT
              pool             67.5G   2.92M   67.5G     0%  ONLINE     -
              tank             67.5G   2.92M   67.5G     0%  ONLINE     -
              zion                 -       -       -     0%  FAULTED    -
        Example 7 Destroying a ZFS Storage Pool
        The following command destroys the pool "tank" and  any  datasets  con‐
        tained within.
          # zpool destroy -f tank
        Example 8 Exporting a ZFS Storage Pool
        The following command exports the devices in pool tank so that they can
        be relocated or later imported.
          # zpool export tank
        Example 9 Importing a ZFS Storage Pool
        The following command displays available pools, and  then  imports  the
        pool "tank" for use on the system.
        The results from this command are similar to the following:
          # zpool import
           pool: tank
             id: 15451357997522795478
          state: ONLINE
          action: The pool can be imported using its name or numeric identifier.
                 tank        ONLINE
                   mirror    ONLINE
                     c1t2d0  ONLINE
                     c1t3d0  ONLINE
          # zpool import tank
        Example 10 Upgrading All ZFS Storage Pools to the Current Version
        The  following  command  upgrades  all ZFS Storage pools to the current
        version of the software.
          # zpool upgrade -a
          This system is currently running ZFS version 2.
        Example 11 Managing Hot Spares
        The following command creates a new pool with an available hot spare:
          # zpool create tank mirror c0t0d0 c0t1d0 spare c0t2d0
        If one of the disks were to fail, the pool  would  be  reduced  to  the
        degraded  state.  The failed device can be replaced using the following
          # zpool replace tank c0t0d0 c0t3d0
        Once the data has been resilvered, the spare is  automatically  removed
        and  is  made available should another device fails.  The hot spare can
        be permanently removed from the pool using the following command:
          # zpool remove tank c0t2d0
        The following exit values are returned:
        0    Successful completion.
        1    An error occurred.
        2    Invalid command line options were specified.


        See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:
        |      ATTRIBUTE TYPE         |      ATTRIBUTE VALUE        |
        |Availability                 |SUNWzfsu                     |
        |Interface Stability          |Evolving                     |
        zfs(1M), attributes(5)


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